Decorating the bathroom with tiles (ceramic tiles) is an original and budget design solution. The material is manufactured in several ways and is characterized by increased strength. The name "tile" he received in Germany, where it was established one of the first large-scale production in the city of Metlakh. It exists till now and is famous for high quality of products, which pass through the double firing procedure. In the traditional version, the tiles are square. Ceramics is one of the oldest finishing materials. From clay they made not only dishes, but also approximately the same pieces, with which the walls of temples and palaces in mosaic technique were faced. The tiles were slightly thinner than bricks, painted and covered with a thick layer of glaze, which protected the surface from mechanical damage. For the cladding of simple houses the material was not used because of its high cost. The most ancient find dates from 3 000 BC. and was found on the ruins of a settlement between the rivers Tigris and Euphrates. You can see the ancient tile picture on the famous Babylonian Gate Ishtar. They were built during the reign of Nebuchadnezzar in honor of the goddess of fertility. The monument is perfectly preserved: the gates are decorated with images of mystical animals (sirrushes and bulls), built on the principle of mosaic, which serve as a clear example of the high level of craftsmanship of ancient artisans.
- How to choose
- How to choose a tile according to the style
- Methods of tile layouts
- In the outbreak
- Mosaic keyboard layout
- Chess styling
- Combined method
- Concepts of modern design
- Styling with ornament
- Stacking of patchwork
- Stacking in the form of honeycombs
- Imitation of a parquet and a massive board
- How to draw a layout chart
- How to count the amount of tile
How to choose
Although the modern market of finishing materials offers vinyl tiles, PVC panels, special lining, tiles still remain out of competition. Before you go shopping in the building store, you need to develop a program for laying tiles and choose the right option among the variety of textures, colors and sizes. The tile is made in three forms:
- Square. These "cubes" have three dimensional standards: 15x15 cm, 30x30 cm and 50x50 cm. For wall decoration use the smallest format.
- Rectangular. Usually measures 25x20 cm. Typically, such a tile for the floor imitates a parquet board or laminate, and for walls - a brick.
- Non-standard forms. Used in modern design directions. Honeycombs, circles, pentagons, triangles look spectacular and unusual.
The composition of the tile includes clay, feldspars and quartz sand, which acts as a "frame", which retains the shape of the product during firing. The whole aggregate of ceramic materials is classified into two groups:
- Bicottature. Tile for facing the walls inside the dwelling. Covering it with enamel, gives the surface a stylish shine. The material is strong, resistant to mechanical damage, temperature changes, changes in humidity level. Bicotta is easy to clean and easy to contact with any type of household chemicals.
- Monocorture. A more solid variety, which trim the walls, the floor inside the house and the paths in the yard. Special frost-resistant models are used for the street.
It is also possible to divide the ceramic materials for decoration into three subgroups:
- Porcelain tiles. Material with low moisture absorption. According to the characteristics of ceramic granite is similar to stone, and in composition - with porcelain.
- Cotto. Material obtained by roasting red clay. Its surface is not covered with glaze and has a characteristic "rough" texture. Cotto has exclusively natural shades within the red-brown color scheme.
- Clinker. It is made by extrusion. Can have a glazed surface or different texture solutions. Single firing at ultra-high temperatures provides a low moisture permeability, which allows you to trim this material is not something that bathrooms, even swimming pools. For them are produced "tiled" sets of steps, corners, gutters.
According to the texture, the tile is classified into glossy, matte and "rough". The latter type includes imitation of the skin of a reptile "turtle", which, with a backlight, looks effectively on the accent walls. As for the color solution, the variety of shades and patterns allows you to choose the option for your interior. Especially popular are the blue, green, blue tones, characteristic for the maritime stylistic solution of the bathroom. Also use contrasting and vivid combinations: black and white, red-gray, yellow-green. In spacious rooms each separate zone (bath, toilet, shower) is highlighted with a specific shade. In old Khrushchevs, where small combined bathrooms are not recommended to experiment with color zoning, and use tiles of only light tones, which will visually expand the boundaries of space. According to the texture, the tile is divided into:
- Monochrome. Used for simple and strict interiors.
- Imitating the surface of natural materials (granite, marble, wood).
- With repeating patterns. The "patterned" surface, as a rule, is decorated with floral ornament or geometric figures.
- Mosaic. Such a tile forms a complex shade composition or a large picture on the surface.
Unusual forms are embodied most often in clinker tiles, as the process of extrusion makes it possible to realize the wildest imaginations of designers.
How to choose a tile according to the style
For those who like classic directions, the traditional tile layout with the ombre effect will do. Color gradation can smoothly pass through the entire surface or have limitations in the form of decorative borders between the shade zones. In the style of Provence, tile is used with a delicate ornament and a thin pattern on a white background. In the country use a combination of monochrome plates with patterned surfaces. The colors predominate in brown and gray. In the loft style, it is appropriate and beautiful to look clinker in the form of bricks with a characteristic surface for the material. Minimalism gives preference to a single-colored tile or a combination of two neutral colors in a checkerboard pattern (black and white, gray-blue). Also for this oriental style is characterized by imitation of marble and rough texture. In high tech, tiles are laid in gray, black, white colors or with "silvery" surfaces.
Methods of tile layouts
From the method of layout depends not only the aesthetic appearance of the finished finish, but also the material consumption. The most popular variants of laying include the "golden" five methods: direct, diagonal, horizontal, vertical, and inverted. To more complex can be considered mosaic, modular and in checkerboard order. Also there are combined variants, they are usually used for a combination of materials of different sizes, colors and textures. If you lay out the tile in accordance with all the rules of the chosen method, the finished picture will be easily perceived visually and will emphasize the advantages of the room.
Lay a tile "seam in the seam" can even beginner decorator. With a direct layout, each tile in the next row should repeat the location of its neighbor from the previous one. In this case, only the first level level bookmark has a value, on which all the rest will be based. Typically, the lined walls have a simple, but beautiful and neat appearance. The method is characterized by high material savings.
In the outbreak
In the method, the neighboring seams between the fragments do not overlap. Each successive row is displaced by a length equal to half the tile. This method simulates brickwork on walls and a laminate or a parquet board on the floor. The color scale is usually chosen appropriate. The material for such a finish will be about the same as for a straightforward method. However, it will be necessary to tinker with the cutting of fragments, since one row of two will be standard starting with a half of the tile.
Deck run-off implies a diagonal arrangement of "brick" masonry.
The diagonal type of packing, in turn, is classified into three types:
- Simple with keeping the seam. As a result, a composition of smooth vertical rhombuses will be obtained. Each second row will end with a triangle, so you will need to cut as many pieces as you would with a method of unraveling.
- Stacking with inserts. For this option, tiles of two sizes are used: large rectangles and small squares. Inside each four large tiles is a small fragment.
- Stacking with suture offset to the side (Christmas tree). Each subsequent row of tile rectangles reverses direction. As a result, the adjacent fragments lie on the short side of half the long edge of the lower tiles.
The more complex the type of diagonal laying, the more time will take work. It is recommended to put tiles with offset to the side in the presence of material defects: deviations from the angles of 90 degrees or inconsistencies in the length and width of each fragment.
Modular method allows you to create an original seam pattern on the floor or walls in the bathroom. The essence of the method lies in the title. For finishing use fragments that are different in size, and sometimes colors. You can put the tile horizontally or diagonally. Actual compositions using two and three different modules, usually rectangular and square shapes. The more diverse the fragments, the more difficult the result will be a drawing. In catalogs, producers usually mark a tile that allows modular styling, with the designation "modulare".
The method is used for tiles of rectangular shapes. In this type of laying, wide faces are located in the horizontal plane. Actively apply the practice for small rooms, which in this way are visually stretched to hide the scarcity of space. If the interlacing sutures are barely visible, and the color is used only one, then there is no difference between the horizontal and vertical styling. For the effect to be more noticeable, the gaps between the fragments are decorated with a special coating.
The method is diametrically opposite to the horizontal one. The wide edges of the rectangular tile are arranged vertically. Use the method when decorating rooms with low ceilings. Vertical "streaks" of seams will stretch out the bathroom and visually add to it a couple of meters in height.
Mosaic keyboard layout
The mosaic effect on the entire surface of the wall or floor can add an extra load to the visual perception of the room. The combination with straight, diagonal or horizontal methods looks more organic. Under the mosaic, a separate fragment is selected on the surface, which will play the role of an accent. To depict the panel on the wall, you no longer have to painstakingly assemble a picture in pieces. Manufacturers are concerned about the simplification of the task and began to produce special mesh basics that allow you to attach large mosaic modules in one fell swoop. The smaller the fragments of the finishing "puzzle", the more detailed the picture.
There is a separate type of tile imitating a mosaic. On the surface of a single piece there are decorative "seams".
В классическом шахматном варианте используют фрагменты черного и белого цвета. Укладывать кафель можно прямым и диагональным способом в зависимости от предпочтений владельцев ванной. Chess styling обязательно базируется на сочетании двух разных цветов. В более сложных композициях применяют большое количество оттенков в рамках одного тона или по принципу контраста. Схема размещения фрагментов подчиняется строгим правилам, и не допускает хаотичной комбинации. В противном случае получится не шахматное расположение, а творческий беспорядок.
In addition to the above methods, combinations thereof are also used. Usually, the combination is made in two versions. The places of "joints" of different layouts are emphasized by contrasting seams. Actually, the horizontal division of a small room in half with the actual line. In order to distinguish accent zones against the background of simpler layout variants, complex methods of labyrinth, mosaic, seaming or modular combinations are used. Often these areas are decorated with tiles of other colors, which contrast with the neutral background solution.
Concepts of modern design
Fashion is in constant motion, it is not static, and design, as is known, is subject to this capricious lady. In the line of modern styles, ceramic tiles play the role of a luxurious element, not a background finish. It is popular to pack fragments of non-standard forms (bee honeycombs, triangles, circles), use surfaces that imitate the texture of natural materials, and apply techniques of needlework in the design of the composition. Also in demand are original drawings executed in accordance with the principles of minimalism, abstractionism, surrealism. All these options allow not only to emphasize the features of the stylistic solution of the bathroom, but also to make its interior unique.
Styling with ornament
Of the small size tiles laid out "pixel" compositions or complex ornaments that "stretch" through individual zones. A similar technique is considered a "kaleidoscope", that is, a combination of different patterns and colors on the fragments. Ornament is not advised to decorate small bathrooms. It looks more effective as a reception of zoning in the combined premises.See also: Interior with wallpaper of two kinds
Stacking of patchwork
Patchwork - a method of stitching large things (blankets, carpets, pillowcases) from small rags of various fabrics. In the layout of the tile, this technique is quite common. However, due to excessive variegation, it is not recommended to decorate the whole wall or floor in this way. To ensure that the interior of this decoration is organically integrated, it is applied on a separate area of the surface, which will be the accent element in the room. Combine pieces of different colors, sizes and patterns. In some cases, the "joints" are decorated with imitation of the seams of threads.
Stacking in the form of honeycombs
Cells - cells that create bees from bees in beehives, have imperceptibly become a popular form, which is played out in the design of rooms. Tiles (often clinker), imitating hexagons, are used in finishing the bathroom and kitchen aprons. Usually fragments of different shades are used to create a composition with a gradation effect. Original options look with the transition from wall to floor. For example, the horizontal surface is decorated with blue and white tiles, and the vertical surface is black, in which there are "dropped" from the top pieces. Also from the honeycombs are creating repetitive compositions and drawings, but preference is given to the same chaotic arrangement of hexagons.
Imitation of a parquet and a massive board
Laminate and parquet board in the bathroom do not use. This "gentle" flooring in harsh conditions will not last long. In some cases, the interior concept requires the use of only a tree. The way out is simple: get a tile in the form of tiles with a surface that imitates a woody pattern. The coating is much stronger, not afraid of moisture and aggressive detergents. The assortment of colors allows you to choose the imitation of any kind of wood: from expensive rattan and to the usual pine.
How to draw a layout chart
Many believe that the creation of a laying project is a matter of minutes. To assess the scale of the work, it is enough to take a pencil in your hand and get lost without knowing where to start. It is necessary to draw a plan of the room on a blank sheet of paper, the higher its detailing, the easier it will be to assess the advantages and disadvantages of the design of the finish. Then sign the measurements, which are previously done using a tape measure. Finish the location of the plumbing. Further, the walls or the floor are divided by several straight lines horizontally, vertically or diagonally depending on the future layout. Assess what sector division looks more organic, and erase unnecessary lines. Then they finish the "grid" of tiles on the surfaces. The resulting squares or rectangles fill with individual colors or draw an approximate ornament.
How to count the amount of tile
First, measure the width and length (height) of the wall or floor that will be faced. The values are multiplied to each other to get the area. If there are "closed" zones (windows or places for finishing other materials), they are also measured. Then, from the total area, unnecessary meters are subtracted. In advance it is necessary to find out the length and width of the tile to be used in the finish. By multiplying these values, calculate its area, too. Bear in mind that the error in the seams is not taken into account in the calculations. Then the area of the whole room is divided into the same value of one tile fragment. Thus, we get an approximate number of tiles, which will be needed to finish the surface. Do not forget to make a small margin within 5% of the resulting value. If fragments of different sizes are used, then the future composition is conditionally divided into equal sectors and their number is calculated. For example, when modular stacking, two rectangles and one square form a fragment with equal sides. Its area is also used as a finishing unit. In the presence of small inserts, their quantity usually corresponds to the number of the basic tile and is also taken with a reserve.
Finishing the bathroom faience has long been a creative process. "Boring" monophonic tiles are used less and less, and designers prefer non-standard options that emphasize the strengths of the interior and become part of the art composition within the room. The main objective of the material is to protect the surface from the effects of the microclimate of the bathroom and to give an aesthetic appearance to the room. The strength of tile is not inferior to bricks and wood, and a rich assortment allows you to choose the option in accordance with the individual needs of the person.