The result of the most expensive repairs can disappoint, if the inhabitants of the house did not take care in time for the lighting design. Correctly selected lighting focuses on the semantic center of the room, divides it into functional areas, eliminates flaws in planning.
|Direct||It comes from a common source. Helps to highlight the necessary details of the interior, provide illumination of the work area.|
|Dissipated||The stream of light directed to the ceiling reflects from it and gives a soft light.|
|Indirect||The main part of the light stream is directed to the floor, a bit on the walls and ceiling. Such a convenient method achieve intensive illumination.|
Modern trends in the design of the dwelling destroyed the old established standards. A variety of lighting devices, new rules for their placement give designers the opportunity to apply:
- multilevel lighting;
- products built into the floor;
- mobile systems.
All physiological, mental processes are closely related to the amount of daylight. Working productivity of adults, the progress of children and even the level of sales of outlets depend on it directly.
Providing good natural illumination is helped by the use of the "second light" strategy with the absence of interstitial overlap, combined lighting, when light penetrates not only through vertical frames, but through installed on the roof or the second tier.
To "catch" more light from the sun, everything is thought out even before the moment of construction. With the existing apartment you need to work. They use such methods:
- increase windows;
- improve illumination with the help of surfaces that reflect light, scatter it throughout the room;
- in a small space they try to apply light colors of furnish and furniture;
- use mirrors, polishing;
- remove high vegetation in front of the house.
The energy efficiency of the building is greatly enhanced if the natural and artificial lighting systems have been properly integrated.
Room illuminated by 2-3 light bulbs of 60 watts does not meet sanitary standards, uncomfortable. Correctly selected lighting is one of the conditions for the convenience of a modern residential building.
With the light coming from above, the interior seems more harsh. Soften this effect with light sources installed at eye level. The room becomes more dynamic if the light comes from the floor.
With proper lighting, the interior will acquire a completely different appearance. With its help hide the flaws, expand the space, push the ceiling, walls. A directional light stream accentuates attention to a collection of photographs or paintings, a fireplace.
The choice of the type of lamp is subject to design requirements. If the source is to be hidden, it is built into the floor or ceiling, the blinds are hidden behind the bars. If you need a small angle of scattering rays, uniform illumination of the entire space, creating a more relaxing atmosphere instead of one chandelier set up a number of point devices.
To improve the color perception of the interior, light sources with different "color temperature" are combined. Warm orange shade is appropriate at the dining table, to create coziness in the bedroom. The yellowish light relaxes. Neutral white is good when working in the kitchen, reading, bluish is useful unless in a museum or jewelry store.See also: Decorative lamps in the interior +80 photo
Variety of fixtures
Lighting devices need to be selected based on the characteristics of the room. In the living room or lobby of the hotel looks good massive chandelier with a lot of plafonds on a long suspension. If the ceiling is low, the suspension is shortened, and the ceiling lights go up to "lift" it.
In small and low rooms are welcomed rigidly fixed on the ceiling fixtures, with varying intensity of light output, chandeliers only on a short suspension and preferably with frosted plafonds. This will ensure a soft lighting of a small space. In a spacious room several such sources will allocate functional zones.
Wall, floor, built-in, desktop devices, spots, point sources often complement the central lighting. Local is more functional, it changes the atmosphere.
Track lighting is popular not only in shops and offices, but also in interior solutions of the apartment. The track itself often has a minimalistic appearance, it is used by designers in fashion lofty, high-tech, vegetable-interiors. Track led led lights are economical, safe, durable.
Innovative type of lighting, created with special profiles on the suspended ceiling, light lines, is used not only for lighting, zoning. It helps to correct the room of an unsuccessful form.
Which lamps and fixtures are better to use
At registration of a modern interior can be applied:
- Incandescent lamps. Favorable to the eyes, but only a tenth of its energy is converted into light, the other is the heat energy that heats the room.
- Fluorescent lamps. The atmosphere is not heated, but hums, and their bluish-white rays do not like everyone. More modern models lack these disadvantages.
- Halogen, metal halide devices emit directional beams, why are more suitable where it is necessary to illuminate a niche, column or picture.
- Light-emitting diodes. In their spectrum there are no harmful radiations, they do not heat the surrounding space, they are strong. But the power of light output is such that they are not used on their own. Applicable as a night light or decorative lighting.
- Light cords, related to light-emitting diodes, "duralight". Suitable for decoration of individual interior elements, streets.
- light effects when moving away from the main source.
Effect of light on shades of color
The color perception of different objects in the same room varies, depending on the combination of different sources with a different temperature.
It is important to observe harmony, otherwise the "color disco" will start to irritate the eyesight, and the taste of the master will be called into question.
- Bright red soften with orange light.
- The intense orange color becomes pastel if it is lit by a yellowish light.
- Yellow will turn into faded gray, if the room is filled with rays with a bluish tinge.
- Pleasant light green is obtained from the green, directing orange light on it, and with the help of a bright blue give a shade of the summer sea.
- Blue will remain unchanged if it is shone with neutral white.
- To perceive the violet interior as red helps the yellowish light.
Warm shades of light contribute to morning awakening, calm down at night. Neutral white lighting mobilizes, activates.
Fix basic mistakes with light
When planning the lighting, it is important to choose the right fixtures and the place where they are located. It's bad when the room is in the twilight, and, although there is not much light, it's not very pleasant to feel like on stage with technical lighting.
- In living rooms, to get rid of dark corners and create zones combine different levels, combine lighting. In a close bathroom, only one source will add unnecessary shadows.
- Too bright lighting, from which quickly get tired, smooth using dimmers and lampshades.
- Dine with dazzling light uncomfortable. And to read in the living room or shave in the bathroom, the upper lighting can be made more powerful.
- Built-in lighting is unproductive, it is more appropriate in narrow rooms, a dressing room. The use of many such sources will make the ceiling similar to Swiss cheese.
- When organizing the interior, it is important to choose the light sources that correspond to the style decision. For the banal illumination, it is enough "Ilyich's bulbs", but in order to become a full-fledged piece of the interior, the lighting device must express an original design idea.
- During operation, the light source is placed to the left, while reading - from behind, the light from the lamp should not be directed into the eyes. Bad, if the light from several lamps creates multiple shadows on a piece of paper.
How to adjust the space with light:
- extends its maximum illumination and good reflective properties of the finish;
- luminaires of direct light are designed for large rooms;
- volume is adjusted by the brightness of light;
- scattered and reflected light expands the space;
- The light rays from the ceiling to the walls visually make the ceiling lower;
- brightly lit from the ceiling the ceiling will seem higher;
- The light sources along one of the corridor walls widen it, if they go in the middle of the ceiling, then narrow it;
- longitudinal lighting lengthens the space;
- to visually extend the corridor, you need to maximally illuminate the wall at its end.
Rules for the location of sockets and switches
The optimal arrangement of the switches is at a distance of 80-90 cm from the floor and 10 cm from the door, on the side where the handle is located. If the lighting is planned flexibly, the switch and dimmer will not be "responsible for all." Additional lighting is regulated by switches, in accordance with the design.
The number of outlets is coordinated with the number of electrical appliances. The height of their location is not of fundamental importance, the main thing is that the quantity corresponds to the number of lighting devices. It is better, if in each room will be provided one or two "extra".
In the corridor they are not necessarily many, the height of the arrangement is according to the "European standard", 15 cm from the floor, so it is more convenient to connect the drying for shoes. In the bathroom use a special outlet, having a protection against moisture. A socket near the TV in the living room is "hidden" behind the screen. In the kitchen, stand 60 cm to the stove and sink. It is desirable to have a large number of outlets, the list of household electrical appliances is growing. In the child's fork holes are protected with special valves.
Luminaire arrangement by room type
Daylight часто не является полноценным из-за неудовлетворительной планировки, небольших оконных проемов, невыгодной этажной расположенности. Помощником вступает центральное, местное или декоративное искусственное освещение.
Central is in any room, but this is not the only light bulb hanging in the center of the room. Over the heads should be properly placed chandelier, chiseled lamps. A separate group will be floor lamps, in harmony with the ensemble of sconces, suitable table lamps. Completeness will acquire any type of room, if decorative lighting will allocate the most advantageous details: an aquarium, a niche with a sculpture, an invoice floor vase.
Adding to the interior a lot of light patterns will allow the use of back, bottom, middle backlight, directional light devices. Lamps on the tires can be moved, change the direction of the light flux with them.
A more muted light source is needed here. Next to the ottoman put a floor lamp, at the dressing table - sconce, for reading on a dream coming, at the head of the bed - a lamp. The style and configuration of all lighting objects correspond with the central one.
It is better that the light at the dressing table does not give shadows, glare, optimally approaching the natural. It is not out of place to provide for the regulation of the brightness of the room.
The decoration of the large room will be a pendant chandelier with a large number of plafonds. Here you can experiment with light: highlight curtains, a deep window sill, fountains, exquisite furniture.
The middle tier in the room can be grouped on one switch. If there is a dining table in the living room, you need to light it up completely. The recreation area is equipped with a wall lamp or a cozy floor lamp.Read also: How to organize lighting design
This room is not recommended for shade, it is lit with a central lamp. A compact corridor becomes wider when using a mirror with lamps around the perimeter.
The evening scenario implies a lower backlight, and in the far dead end there is a highlighted wall niche.
This is dominated by local light. It is also not worth to refuse from the general light, it will come in handy when working at a computer, so the eyes get tired less.
A home office is often a place of informal meetings. Next to the table, sofas and armchairs, a sconce or floor lamp with scattered yellow light looks good, which makes conversation easy. To stimulate active activity, halogen, fluorescent lamps are optimal.
Less formal than office, the environment allows the use of non-strict luminaires made of glass and metal, and more comfortable wooden with lampshades from textiles.
Lighting in the kitchen is mostly functional. Work surfaces are well lit by halogen or fluorescent lamps. If there is no built-in lighting, use convenient lamps-clothespins. Think about the technology of placing LED ribbon fixtures or embed in the eaves of the top hanging lockers special rods, which are attached to the lamps of directional light.
The plate is illuminated by light sources located on the hood. At a plate, at other working surfaces light sources protect plafonds with a smooth surface, such it is easier to wash. Local light is not always required, so separate switches are made for it.
Bathroom and a bathroom
A well-lit bright room, with direct top light and a second at the mirror, sets up a festive mood, becomes spacious. Plafonds and sconces are best to choose semi-hermetic, small size and do not install them directly above the bathroom, this is unsafe.
For particularly demanding, there is a backlight, built in the design of the bath. Dimensions of lighting devices located in the bathroom or toilet room are determined by its area.
In the toilet, where the ceilings are quite low, the best option is wall lighting. The main thing is that it can not be hurt at the entrance and exit.
For a combined bathroom is convenient for the rarely seen form of lighting, lower lighting. It looks decorative, comfortable at night, when you do not feel like going to the toilet, wake up with a bright light.
The main rule when installing lighting in the children's room - they must be safe, located at a sufficient distance from curious children's hands, the beating parts of glass should be avoided.
Here you need more natural light, artificial sources should not be sharp and bright. Light try to fill the entire space evenly. The most applicable in children's spot lighting, chandeliers with "viscule" from crystal here are inappropriate, they "attract" balls and washers.
The role of working lights will be made by a comfortable table lamp with the ability to adjust the height and direction. The most brightly lit zone is the gaming one. A small beautiful nightie helps to retire to sleep, and parents are more comfortable with orienting with darkening.
The sensation from the whole room is able to change, if only the usual incandescent lamp is replaced by halogen or LED. Metamorphoses from the complete replacement of all chandeliers and sconces are unpredictable. When there is no money for a complete transformation of the interior, you can have fun choosing several lighting devices from the catalog.
Proper lighting design of the dwelling is important not only for the preservation of eye health, it contributes to better relaxation, and the morning coffee of a beautiful lamp will seem much tastier and will set on a good day.