Landscape design appeared in ancient times. Of course then this trend in art did not have such a name. The decoration of the territory surrounding the building began with the temple complexes. To the structures erected for the worship of deities, treated with special honor and tried to coax the members of the pantheon, creating a unique landscape around the holy place. The temples had not only luxurious furnishings inside, but scenic views outside. The grounds were decorated with flower beds, flower beds, statues, arches, terraces, ornamental ponds and neat paths connecting secondary structures.
Floating gardens were built in India. Luxury palaces of Indian nobles were traditionally decorated with spacious ponds, on which rafts with loose ground and planted flowers were lowered. In the Middle Ages, there were unique garden "labyrinths" that adorned the summer palaces to rest crowned individuals and their families. In history, many magnificent examples of decorating sites around residential buildings have been preserved. Landscape design in front of the house plays a special role in decorating the plot, as this is the "face" of the possessions, which will be demonstrated to each guest.
What does the layout consist of?
The decor of the site in front of the house will include many elements:
- Green plantations and flower beds.
- Water constructions.
- Pavilions and terraces,
- Fences and gates, gates.
- Track systems.
All these components of the landscape must be linked to the overall composition. When planning the placement of each element, three aspects are taken into account:
- Climatic features.
- Type of soil.
If the house territory is damaged by mounds and hollows, you do not need to rush and level the area with the help of loose soil. The features of the relief can be transformed into advantages that will help create a unique design composition. Zonal division of the territory into small areas involves the placement of individual sites, which are separated from each other, but are connected by a system of decorative paths. Near the house you can equip the gazebo, so that in the summer it was possible to hide from the scorching sun. Cool, complete with aesthetic pleasure will give a decorative pond. Systems of flower beds and flower beds will please the eye and benefit, if some of them are planted with spices. Green fences do not always perform only a decorative role, because you can decorate the house territory with berry bushes.
When planning, the features of the shape of the yard and its dimensions are also taken into account. Two or three hundred square meters is enough to house a gazebo, green spaces, driveway and even a small front garden. To additionally decorate the garden patio with a lawn or a spacious lawn, it will take a bit more space.See also: Variants of landscape design of the site 15 hectare
Determined with the style
The style of decorating the yard should be tied first of all on the main building - the house. If different directions are selected, then they should have points of contact in order to get a dynamic mix, an organic combination. The decoration can be simple or pretentious, luxurious and in a big way. More concise options are suitable for typical summer cottages, the main purpose of which - summer vacation in nature and care of the garden. Luxury yards, as a rule, decorate townhouses and cottages. A rich assortment of styles are united into two groups:
|Historical||They include English, Spanish, French, Russian, Mediterranean, Scandinavian, Moorish.|
|Popular modern||In this group there are directions, which in their characteristics are similar to similar styles in interior design. They include high-tech, eco, modern, minimalism, alpine (chalet).|
Decoration is carried out in accordance with the concept of the direction that was chosen.
Everything starts with a gate, a gate and a fence
The external fence should be high and monumental. Its main function is to protect the site from unauthorized intrusion of uninvited guests. The beauty of the fence goes to the background. According to the material, the fences are classified into the following types:
- Stone. Sturdy material that is used for permanent fences. The stone is universal and fits almost any style. If only the foundation part and dividing posts between the sections are made from it, the material can be combined with brick, metal or wood.
- Wood. Organically looks in combination with Provence, country and Russian style. To ensure that the wooden fence lasts long, the material must be protected with a special impregnation, which prevents moisture from entering the micropores of the wood.
- Metal. Forged elements can create an elegant, sophisticated composition, but at the same time they perfectly cope with the protective function of the fence.
- Brick. This fence will last a long time, but it has a slightly rustic appearance. Suitable for modern styles.
- Concrete. The material is poured into special shapes, and as a result, the same sections for fencing are obtained. Concrete has a democratic value, but at the same time it allows you to choose the original design.
- Slate. An unpleasant fence made of this material is suitable as a temporary option. Wicket and gates are selected under the fence, as these elements are part of one composition.
Arrangement of tracks and entry
The courtyard is decorated with the main road for entry, leading to the house, and decorative branches, on which walk on foot. For the central "highway" of the land area, choose a solid concrete, stone, brick or asphalt covering. Original options look like when between smooth cobblestones leave gaps filled with grass.
Decorative paths are made of less reliable materials that adorn the landscape. They include:
- Gravel, crushed stone, pebbles. To small pebbles are not carried around the site, the path is protected by green plantations or flower beds.
- Sand. Budget option, which turns into a mess during the rains.
- Tree. The decks look presentable and are combined with the rustic style, but will not last long.
- Ceramic tile. From the pieces of tile, laid out in the technique of mosaic, you can create a motley and creative path.
- Plastic. In stores, special modules are sold, but this option is cheap and unpresentable.
- Wood saws. The track will last a long time, but its installation will be accompanied by large-scale excavation, because the deck has a decent height. This is necessary for the track to withstand heavy loads. Flat "pancake" cuts will quickly crack.
- Traffic jams. The original version, which will require painstaking work from the designer. Decorative paths can also be made of concrete or brick, but combining materials will create a complex landscape picture.
Backlight patio in the suburban area is divided into two types:
- Functional or basic.
The first is necessary for comfortable movement around the yard at night, and the second simply emphasizes the dignity of the decor. For street lighting, it is not recommended to use fluorescent lamps that will not work at low temperatures. The wiring is laid underground to eliminate the risk of mechanical damage. Optimum option when choosing light bulbs are halogen and LED devices. They have a long service life and low energy consumption.
If the owners do not belong to the number of "owls" and do not spend nights on the street, then you can use lamps that work on solar panels. From the point of view of economy, they are in the lead among lighting devices. Light bulbs only work 4-5 hours at night, as there will not be enough energy for more accumulated energy per day.
Ways of gardening
Green plantations are divided into three types:
- Trees. Because of the decent height, they can not be planted close to the fence, since the shadow can interfere with neighbors.
- Shrubs. Of these, original compositions, animals and geometric figures are created.
- Flowers and other low plants.
From the trees create slender ranks along the paths or small front gardens with fruit varieties. Flowers are collected in colorful compositions for flower beds. Different types of plantings can be combined with each other.
The choice of plants and the principle of planting
Plants should be selected taking into account the following criteria:
- Features of the soil.
- The level of groundwater and the location of the site (lowland or elevation).
- Climatic conditions.
In the lowlands, moisture accumulates after heavy rains. For this reason, such sites are swamped and become unsuitable for most plants. With the hills is much easier, since it is easier to pour a bit more than to artificially drain the earth. The viability of certain plant species also depends on the composition of the soil. Poor rocky soil will become a test for delicate flowers. Sand in arid regions does not retain moisture, so a high-quality irrigation system is needed. Black soil is considered to be the most nutritious, but when it rains heavily it turns into a dirty "mess". The solution for poor soil will become a bulk layer, which is brought specifically for planting. For plants, 0.5 m of soil will suffice, and for bushes and trees that have a powerful, developed root system, several cargo vehicles will have to be ordered.
It is also necessary to consider the compatibility of certain plants with each other. Some "egoists" can pull all the juices out of the ground and provoke their neighbors to a slow withering. Such aggressive specimens are planted at a distance.
Creation of flower beds and flower beds
The flower garden is a broad concept that combines variations of plants planting. It is classified into types:
- Free. The flower garden does not have any barriers, and the riot of the flora is tempered by systematic processing.
- Mixborders. A flower garden on one side is confined to a fence and often planted along the tracks. The name of the decorative element was obtained as a result of the merger of two words: mix (mixing) and curb.
- Flowerbeds. This type of flower garden has a fence. He is given various forms: from rectangular to round.
- Border of flowers. As a rule, it is planted from low flower bushes, which limit the lawn from the entrance or the garden path. Also, flower beds can be modular, mixed and multidimensional. If you select the right types of plants, you can get an original color gradation on the flower bed.
Figurative design of bushes
Cutting plants is not such a simple occupation, as it may seem at first glance. For figured plantations, only certain types of shrubs are suitable: boxwood, cotoneaster, cob, yew and holly. They are easy to be cut. Boxwood is poisonous, therefore it is necessary to protect pets and children from it. Biryuchin is ideal for "lazy" gardeners, as it requires a haircut only once a year. Until the desired result is obtained, the plant is limited to a self-made wire frame. If you can not get a hand in this business, then you get special patterns, inside which the bushes develop in the right direction and are adjusted to fit. The simplest are considered to be geometric figures, but animals or humans will have to be created for years.See also: Landscape design of the site at 6 hectare - 40 photos
Trees - how to choose and which ones to plant better
In landscape design, trees are classified into four types:
- Coniferous. They are good in that they preserve green colors even in winter. The conifers prefer a shadow and are distinguished by their stamina.
- Hardwood. A favorite option for designers. They are divided into two subspecies: ornamental-deciduous and flowering.
- Fruit. They include apple trees, pears, cherries, apricots, cherries, plums.
- Evergreen deciduous. In the winter, they do not strip the crown, but require special care. Plant trees on four principles:
- Groups. In them, as a rule, fruit trees are united.
- Tapeworms. Single thai or pine on the site will definitely attract attention.
- The avenues. Trees are planted on both sides of the path.
- Hedge. Although it is usually performed from shrubs, the "decoration" of trees will more reliably protect the site from curious looks from the street.
Do not forget that neighboring trees are also chosen according to the principle of compatibility, as well as flowers.
The totality of water structures in landscape design includes:
- Sources. This is the beginning of the channel of an artificial reservoir or natural stream.
- Fountains. Artificial structures in which water jets are emitted under pressure.
- Brooks. They have a curved, irregular shape and a narrow channel.
- Waterfalls. They represent a stream, the water of which flows down obstacles (most often stones).
- Cascades. A system of several waterfalls.
- Ponds with standing water.
It is not necessary to artificially erect complex structures, if a natural water "artery" flows along the site, its beaches are decorated with stones and complicated by obstructions to the formation of cascades. Pools also belong to this type of decor, but they decorate the courtyards on sites rarely, since such an arrangement is considered impractical.
Original terraces and arbors
A separate place for relaxation will become a functional addition to the patio. For this purpose, they build gazebos and terraces. The first type of construction is divided into several types:
- Open. These light arbors consist of supports and a roof. Used for rest in the summer.
- Half-open. As a rule, they have decorative walls made of forged elements or wooden slats.
- Closed. In the design of the arbor there is glazing and walls. Used for winter recreation. Monumental structures are even supplied with an oven.
It is worth noting the pergolas. These structures are similar to arbours, but instead of a roof have a "canopy" of weaving plants (grapes, ivy) that wrap around the frame. By the forms of construction can be round, square and polygonal. The terrace is an artificially created hill, on which there are tables, chairs, sofas. They are classified into three types:
- Closed. The building consists of walls and a roof. She can stand alone or adjacent to the house. Rain and wind are not terrible for tourists on such terraces.
- Half-open. They have a roof, and instead of walls, light curtains are used.
- Glazed. In their design there is a roof and panoramic windows. The main advantage of the terrace is the abundance of sunlight and protection from the weather. Another special type of structure consists only of walls, but the building is placed on the back yards. Characteristic of this design element for the Spanish style.
With the help of competent landscape design, you can transform your site beyond recognition. Thin and elegant art of registration are taught for years. Only from under the hand of the master can come out a real paradise, which does not want to leave. It is difficult to create an ideal design on its own, as during work it is necessary to take into account a lot of rules and small nuances, and decorative elements differ from interior decorations and are difficult to move.