Designation "design" came into use in the XVI century in Europe. Although the word comes from the English language, an exhaustive interpretation of the term was given in Italy: the concept of art, which appeared in man under the influence of higher forces, muse, God. Design is a dynamic system that is based on technical aesthetics, but is in constant development. In the first magazine in the world, devoted entirely to this direction of art, two theses on which it is based until now have been formulated. In the first place for any designer should remain the functional purpose of the thing, and only on the second - its decoration. That is, in trying to invent something original, non-standard, beautiful, we must not forget about the purpose for which it was created. The author of a simple formulation was Ser Henry Cole, who gave the world not only a lot of technical innovations, but also became the author of the idea of Christmas cards. Over time, the concept was divided into separate branches, which created a complex structure. Among them, and interior design - a set of rules and features of decoration of the interior of the room. Along with the landscape view (arrangement of the site and yard area), it is most often used in everyday life and has practical benefits. The development of such projects is handled by professional designers, but every owner of an apartment or house faces the problem of creating a unique situation. In order to save money or from the desire to try out their talents as a designer, many refuse the services of masters and start designing themselves. This task is not simple, as housing should be not only beautiful, but also comfortable. On how to make the design of the apartment project itself and what rules you need to orient yourself to beginners, and talk in this article.
Stages of project creation
All work can be divided into stages:
- Preliminary study of the territory, creation of a technical plan with measurements of premises and analysis of engineering networks. The accuracy of the figures that the designer will receive will depend a lot, since a mistake even in a millimeter can have serious consequences. By the way, in new serial houses, measurements can be borrowed from the MBTI plan.
- Preparation of the project on paper or in the program. Visualization of the plan. Measurement.
- Redevelopment, installation of partitions, zoning. Laying communication lines.
- Choosing a stylistic solution, colors, finishes.
- Arrangement of furniture. At this stage, we must not forget that all items must have their place, but that the room should not be formed lonely voids.
- Selection of decor.
After drafting a rough draft on paper, it is repainted on a blank sheet or printed if the creation took place in the program. When among the acquaintances there are experienced professionals who have not eaten one dog in this business, it is not out of place to give them their work for study.
If the apartment or house does not have permanent access, then during the measurements it is necessary to make an act of photographic fixation and to imprint the rooms. Being far away, it will be easier to plan something and choose the most optimal solutions if the pictures are constantly before your eyes.
See also: Design of one-room apartment p-44t
Determine with style
Finding your style in a variety of areas is quite difficult. To determine what the soul is for, you just need to study a selection of typical interiors. Although the type of housing does not impose any restrictions on stylistic concepts, for certain apartments and houses some directions are used more often than others. So for luxury apartments choose chic classics, baroque, rococo, art nouveau, colonial style. For one-room apartments in Khrushchev, convenient options are chosen, which make it possible to smooth out the main drawback - crowdedness. The directions that can transform small rooms ("scourge" of small-sized one-room housing) include minimalism, futurism, loft, Japanese, Scandinavian style. In the territories of spacious studios embody the ideas of modern style, high-tech, eclectic, fusion, provence. Since the type of planning is considered an innovation in the world of interior fashion, then the situation should correspond to such a fashionable apartment. The dachas use the Russian style and country, as two polar varieties of ethnics. In remote areas they look the most organic. In addition, you can save on materials, because you can always use the helpers (tree), if the forest is not far, and permission for work from a local hunter / forester is available. For the design of holiday apartments also suitable for cozy and home Provence, a more rigorous chalet, a number of "geographical" directions: Italian, German, Spanish, English style.
Selection of colors, textures and finishing materials
Self-selection of the palette should start with the concept of color combination. The principles of combining the mass, but we will single out only the main ones:
- Complementary or contrast. In this combination, two colors are used, which are located on different sides of the Itten spectral range. They are opposite in terms of psychological significance, but in combination they look rich and effective. Since the duo is too "live" it is not recommended to use it for decorating bedrooms. Choose neutral grounds: bathroom, living room, hall.
- A similar combination. In this case, select up to five shades from the color spectrum, which are located on the circle in the neighborhood. Do not forget to adjust their intensity, so that the composition does not turn out to be too bright.
- Triad. The optimum number of colors for creating a cozy interior in the "active" rooms: kitchen, living room. To select colors, a conditional triangle is drawn inside the spectral circle. Its tops will indicate the desired shades.
- Quartet. To select the four primary colors, you can draw a square inside the circle. The points of contact of its edges will indicate the correct tones. In general, the combination of the four shades already refers to slightly supersaturated, so with this composition it is worthwhile to be more careful.
From the choice of surface texture depends "warmth" of walls, floor, ceiling. Gloss, for example, gives a chic to the situation, but also makes it slightly state-owned, museum. With matte surfaces it is already easier, because they are "warmer". Among the "soft" options note the texture of the veneer, which is not only pleasing to the eye, but also gentle to the touch.
Among the variety of finishing materials it is easy to get lost especially if the designer has never tried to design interiors himself before. With the help of a combination of their textures, you can even conduct a conditional zoning room. With a choice will help stylistic concept, since each direction tends to one material and does not accept the others. For example, in the classical kitchen they use expensive tiles on the floor and on the walls. In the chic chic and some eclectic styles, only inexpensive materials are used, among which PVC is isolated. Any countryside direction, whether country or Provence, adores the tree. The same material covers literally all surfaces in the chalet. Part of it is used in classical style, but walls are pasted with wallpaper. For high-tech pick up plastic, glass and metal.See also: Design of an apartment for a bachelor
We develop a plan for electricians and lighting
The wiring diagram combines cables, sockets, switches, meter, switchgear and bends. The proper selection of equipment and materials is the main goal for which this plan is developed. Looking at the scheme, you can rationally plan the work on the arrangement of electricity in the house. Having a detailed drawing at hand, it is much easier to determine the input power that is needed. If necessary, the scheme will help to redistribute it when rescheduling. This will prevent overloading in the network and the occurrence of fire-dangerous situations.
Selection and arrangement of furniture
The furniture elements are arranged in such a way that there are no "unfilled" spaces, but at the same time there is comfort for those who stay in the room and for those who move around it. In large rooms, you can use the island layout and make a central set in the middle. For example, in the living room it will be a sofa with a coffee table, in the bedroom - a bed, and in the kitchen - two of the three vertices of a working triangle. If the room is too small, then the furniture is placed around the perimeter. For narrow spaces, the parallel planning method is not recommended. In this case, the furniture is placed along two "long" walls, which visually makes the room even more elongated. If the room has a non-standard form, then the garniture elements select special, original, emphasizing its features. By the way, it is better to refuse furniture sets. An exception can only become kitchen headsets. In other cases, the kit is selected independently. The process will take a certain time, but the situation will not look like a typical apartment decoration from the 70s. In small rooms they use a multifunctional "garden" furniture. It saves space and, if necessary, is removed, taking up even less space. In the styles of Provence, Russian, country, you can make some furniture elements yourself, because the directions welcome such a creative approach and do not have anything against the gross forms.
If the wall of the room has numerous defects that are difficult to fix, then arrange a built-in wardrobe (wardrobe) along it. No one will see shortcomings, and the owners will have a huge cupboard.
Development of additional decor elements
All decor is conditionally classified into two groups:
- Elements that serve solely for decoration. A special comfort is, to a large extent, the merit of precisely such "useless" trinkets from the rational point of view.
- Decor that performs useful functions. It includes floor lamps, night lamps, lamps, sconces, flower vases, jewelery boxes, mirrors, hot gloves and napkins in the kitchen.
Decorative "polishing" the interior should be developed after the main works. However, sketches should be prepared long before this stage. On the design of the wall, the floor and ceiling in advance are decorated with a decor that will be placed on their surfaces afterwards. Elements that will transform furniture, you can pick up after repair. Single pictures, pictures or group compositions hang on the walls. Also organically look mirrors, painting, bas-reliefs, mosaic, designer's selection of plates, porcelain, baskets. Floors are traditionally decorated with carpets, paths, rugs, animal skins. The colder in the room, the longer their pile. Recently there have been liquid floors, which allow to decorate this surface with incredible drawings. The ceiling is decorated with stucco, frescoes, beams, painted with complex multi-level frame structures made of plasterboard. However, the main decoration of this zone is a chandelier.
Visualization with computer programs
Among the popular visualizers, professionals note:
- 3D Studio MAX. The program is in demand not only among amateurs, but also in a professional environment. Perhaps this will be the best recommendation. The scheduler can boast of high detail and a large assortment of interior details.
- Sweet Home 3D. Free visualizer, designed for beginners. Detailing is primitive, in order to drag the desired object into a three-dimensional room, simply hold it with the left mouse button and draw it out from the graphic list. Unfortunately, the range of parts is rather poor, but additional catalogs are available for download on the official website.
- Roomle. Another "simplified" version of the scheduler, designed for beginners. Using the program for free, but the work is only possible in online mode, that is, all information is stored in the cloud, and without an Internet connection, it is not possible to make corrections to the digital design project. In addition to designing, the user can evaluate their work by walking through a virtual home.
- Floorplanner. A detailed visualizer for beginners. The creators did not rely on the beauty of the picture, but on the possibility of developing a detailed project along with communicative lines, partitions and ladders. The program was not Russified, but a simple interface will help you not get lost in the toolbar.
- in an apartment. Online service, which will become an erudite assistant in design design, since the planner includes also training, useful advice. In the program you can change the layout, pick up finishing materials, furniture, details of decor. The visualizer will also provide the addresses of stores where real samples of virtual copies of the furnishings are sold, that is, the user immediately learns how much is the bedroom bed or living room vase.
Accomplishment of the house is a priority for any designer. Visualizers will help you learn how to make your own projects without resorting to boring textbooks. Studying the basics of a complex profession will be a pleasant game.
We compose the estimate of the necessary materials
Before doing repairs, you need to prepare your wallet for serious tests. In order not to plunge into the pre-infarction state, the amount is counted in advance. Before budgeting, the following actions are carried out:
- After making the measurements, accurately calculate (with a small excess) the amount of materials that will be needed for repair.
- Extend to the light of their own "reserves" and, if necessary, exclude it from the general list.
- With the same purpose to conduct a survey among the comrades who are possible with this or that material and do not need at all, but dust in the garage.
After that, they begin to study the market and the price policy of the sellers. The estimates are made by services and materials with an "above average" cost. As a result, the amount will be overstated, but in the event of force majeure, funds can be allocated from this "excess stock". If everything goes smoothly, the remaining money will be a pleasant bonus to the original repair. The estimate is made by:
- Rough and basic materials;
- The cost of labor of workers;
- Cargo delivery and garbage collection.
When drawing up estimates, they are guided precisely by such an unpretentious plan. It is outlined as a table and divide each item into subgroups. What is available or already purchased, marked with a plus, and then, what else is not - a dash.
The necessary tools for the implementation of the project
In this case it is impossible to provide an exhaustive list, since in different situations a certain front of work is carried out. If the repair has already been done and you only need to arrange the furniture, you will need measuring instruments and fixing systems (nails, screws, dowels). If a full-fledged redistribution of an apartment or a house is planned, then a huge number of tools will be required at each stage of the work. For example, for gluing walls with wallpaper, you have to stock up with glue, water, containers, a roller and brushes, a primer, clean rags or sponges, gloves, a measuring tape. If you want to create a complex frame for a suspended ceiling, you will need a puncher, a range finder (roulette), a level, a screwdriver, hangers for the blade, shoulder blades, stepladder, sealant. For each stage of the work a special set of tools is required.
Conclusion - project implementation
Make a design project with your own hands - just half the battle. Much more difficult and more interesting will be its embodiment in reality. The more detailed you develop the project, the fewer problems will arise at the implementation stage. Before you start the second part of the conversion, critically examine your preliminary work a few more times. Better even show it to another person or flip through yourself, but on a "fresh head". As a rule, mistakes become evident that were never seen before.