Kitchen design in the apartment and its development is a multi-stage process, including design, selection of materials for the implementation of the plan, decoration of the room, its decoration and decorative "grinding". The front of the work is impressive, but with a competent approach, the result will be appropriate. Kitchen - a special room in the house. It is arranged in such a way that cooking from daily service turns into a pleasant process, and the culinary inspiration of the hostess is drawn from the furnishing of the room. Most modern kitchens are combined with dining rooms. Previously, this design move was a necessity to save space, but lately it has become a fashionable and stylish solution. Absolutely all members of the family visit the kitchen at least three times a day, this is without taking into account unplanned afternoon snacks and evening tea parties. Guests in addition to gatherings in the living room, too, will come to this room for refreshments or a festive dinner. The kitchen is made in two ways:
The interior of the kitchen in the style of Provence is characterized as an imitation of a charming olden time. Style has a touch of romanticism and naivety. It uses an abundance of wooden furniture and natural light. Typically, the kitchens with the color of the French outback are made in private country houses, since even during the construction in the room they install spacious windows. This style can be safely attributed to the budget, because it uses "grandma's" furniture. It is enough only to lighten it up and decorate with vases with compositions from wild flowers, motley curtains, a tablecloth with ornament. The design of the finishes is also very simple. In the Provence use natural materials (wood in priority) with rough texture. For decoration of walls the wallpaper of gentle color in a lovely flower will approach. From shades prefer warm colors.
Kitchen in the style of minimalism is made on the principle of "nothing superfluous." Only necessary elements, which often perform several functions at once. In minimalism, there is no room for trivialities and decor. Utensils, pots and other kitchen utensils hides behind the closed doors of cabinets, and large forms come to the fore. The color scale is chosen according to the concept of contrasts. Usually in a minimalist kitchen there are white, black and gray colors. The palette is as restrained and strict as possible.
Classical cuisine seems to breathe luxury and elegance. It uses a large number of stucco moldings, decorative elements, crystal and reflective surfaces. The classical room tends to symmetry, which should be taken into account when choosing a furniture set. Of flowers, preference is given to light shades. It is allowed to use bright accents only against white furniture. By the way, thanks to this color neutrality, the classical cuisine does not get bored and for many years will please the eyes of the owners without requiring repair. From materials choose a natural tree.
Kitchen in high-tech style combines a simple, but expensive finish, with high technology. The direction gives preference to artificial light, the abundance of which is provided on several levels at once. The room is dominated by only one color, which is shaded by a few calm tones. Gray, black and white symbolize practicality and "complex simplicity."
Art Nouveau or a new art in the design of the kitchen is embodied with the help of wavy lines. Sharp corners in this style fall under the taboo. Smoothness can be traced everywhere: in decor, elements of structures and even decoration of premises. Also in the style there are floral ornament, mosaic patterns, painting. Distantly, art nouveau resembles a classic, which was beaten to a "new harmony".
When choosing a color scheme, four classical variations of a combination of shades are resorted:
- Contrasting. It selects the two primary colors that are on the spectral circle in different "temperature" sections. They are complemented by one or two shades;
- Monochrome. The main color is shaded by its closest neighbors in the spectrum. The tone pattern is very calm. This concept is also called monochrome. Choose either cold or warm shades;
- The principle of similarity. With it, choose the main color and two shades, which are from it at an angle of about 15-20 degrees on the spectrum. It is important that they are both equidistant from the main tone;
- Accent combination. There are four colors in it: the main one, its two shades and a bright tone. The latter is chosen on the basis of contrast with the main "hero" of the composition.
Any of the presented color concepts is universal and suitable for all types of premises, and the kitchen is no exception.
A priori the kitchen should be "warm". Even in elegant or rigorous apartments it is necessary to keep a homeliness, and not museum "coldness". For this reason, it is not recommended to abuse shades with "low temperature". Cold tones will affect the culinary mood of the hostess and the appetite of the household.
Psychology of flowers
The psychology of color is a complex "science", the study of which has spent a lot of strength psychologists, marketers, sociologists. Color imperceptibly and accurately affects the human brain. He can at the subconscious level induce him to something, cheer up, provoke apathy, provoke an agitated state or aggression. The Daoist practice of organizing space and selecting color for specific premises is engaged in in-depth study of the effects of shades on the human psyche. Feng Shui helps to equip the living quarters in such a way that the people living in it feel harmony. White color is associated with innocence. A blank sheet of paper is a symbolic "door" to the world of new opportunities. In order to impress, they wear white shirts, and festive tables are covered with the same tablecloths. This color prevails in medical institutions, and "guests" of hospitals, as you know, need peace. His most implacable opponent is black. In humans, it provokes controversial associations. It symbolizes night, twilight, evil, death and negative. Although there is not a single person who does not have dark things in his wardrobe. They always look stylish and elegant. A similar raid of rigor brings black color to the interior. He perfectly copes with the task of the background, which "play" the other components of the palette of the colors of the room.
Red symbolizes action, activity, passion, challenge and even aggression. This color always attracts attention and excites reason. For this reason, it can not be used in rooms that need to be set up in a calm manner. Green is considered the color of nature, youth, freshness, health, pacification, grass and tree crowns. Its natural shades will help create a cozy atmosphere in the kitchen. Blue refers to cold colors, nevertheless in the majority of the inhabitants of the Earth he is loved. Best of all, this tone creates a relaxed environment, which has to communicate. How many people wondered why the majority of social networks have blue logos? Because he acts as a guarantor of a "heart-to-heart talk". For the kitchen, blue and its closest shade - blue are rare. They do not contribute to the appetite and tune into excessive relaxation. As the main theme of the marine theme, blue is associated with relaxation, so it is added to sleeping compositions.
Yellow acts as a symbol of the sun, optimism, joy and activity. It refers to warm colors, so it fits perfectly for the kitchen. Yellow walls or a set will not only look beautiful, but also adjust to a positive mood. Purple is associated with religious mystery, luxury and even light "alien". The fact is that in nature this color is very rare. In the interior of the kitchen, violet looks only as an accent. Pink means youth, tenderness and lightness (in this it is similar to white). This color is preferred for creating "soft", romantic interiors. Brown, many unknowingly associate with the spring mud, ugliness and something out of date, out of fashion. In fact, this color is simply underestimated, because it is also a symbol of fallen leaves, tree trunks and fertile land. Brown can create a warm, comfortable room, in which anyone can feel comfortable. Gray is the result of a combination of two spectral opponents: white and black. He is referred to neutral colors that are suitable for those who like simplicity and modesty. Orange is an intermediate variant between yellow and red. He is considered a model of extravagance and energy. Many things that we call red, in fact, have an orange color: fire of a bonfire, sunset.
With "dirty" shades of yellow, unpleasant associations arise. These tones symbolize treachery, lies, insanity. Choose a "clean", juicy tone.
Adjusting the kitchen color
Typical Khrushchevs usually have small kitchens. Many believe that the lack of space allows only the economy option in the design. The size of the room can be beaten with the help of color. This is a real way to hide its shortcomings and multiply dignity. As a result, the room will seem larger than it really is. Use warm shades in the walls:
- Light yellow;
The floor can be decorated with the natural color of light wood, and the top is left white. This will stretch the space if the ceilings are too low. To expand the kitchen on light wallpaper let horizontal strips. They can act as a decorative element, a separation zone between two different types of finishes from below and from above. In spacious kitchens and more possibilities. They can be safely framed on the principle of contrasts and not be afraid of cold shades or dark tones.Read also: Kitchen design without closets - storage ideas, interior photos
Specificity of the microclimate of the kitchen determines the selection of special finishing materials. They must withstand temperature changes and high humidity. In addition, the coating will necessarily be cleaned frequently, since the hood does not work well, and the "fat" coating will still form with time. To get a combination of decorative and performance qualities, types of finishing materials combine among themselves in different conditional zones of the kitchen. If the coating is not selected correctly, it will quickly become unusable and will have to be repaired.
Flooring выбирают из материалов, представленных ниже:
- Linoleum. It is unpretentious in care, imitates any texture and at a price refers to the most budgetary materials;
- Cork cover. Hypoallergenic, natural material. Pleasantly "springs" under your feet, which allows you to walk on it barefoot. Repels dust and easy to clean;
- Laminate. Simulates any kind of wood, easy to care for;
- Parquet board. Sensitive to moisture and temperature extremes. The kitchen is mainly used for finishing the dining area;
- Underground floor. Durable, durable and has a seamless structure. Allows you to draw a floor with three-dimensional drawings or panoramas;
- Ceramic tile. It is considered a traditional floor covering. It is easy to clean, not sensitive to household chemicals, it successfully withstands all the whims of the kitchen microclimate, but can cause cracks from strong blows;
- Porcelain tiles. Unlike tiles, it is shockproof, easily tolerates high humidity and changes in temperature conditions. It differs in high cost.
When decorating the ceiling, they are guided by the budget and the style of the premises. Finishing materials are selected from the standard list:
- Whitewash. A simple and affordable way to finish the ceiling. Unfortunately, whitewashing does not tolerate humidity, so it will require frequent renovation of the coating;
- Wallpaper. An unconventional option that is difficult to implement. Heavy wallpaper will hardly be kept on the ceiling until the glue dries completely. It is very difficult to stick the rolls, so an assistant will be needed to supervise the process, watching from the outside;
- Painting. Traditional method, which was actively used in the design of kitchens in the last century. The paint is easy to clean, but eventually it will crack and lose its "commodity" appearance, it will have to be updated every couple of years;
- Plastic. He is referred to as economical options. The material is easy to install and will withstand even flooding from the neighbors from the top. If a part of the coating is damaged, local repair is allowed;
- Drywall. Its installation is sometimes complicated, but the material makes it possible to embody the most daring design fantasies. From gypsum cardboard create multilevel ceilings;
- Rack material. For the kitchen, models with closed seams are used, as otherwise dirt will accumulate in the "gutters". Its installation is akin to an assembly of a designer;
- Stretch ceiling. Finishing will be carried out with the involvement of a master, which is associated with additional costs. The material has no seams, hides surface defects, is easy to clean.
For wall finishing use the following materials:
- PVC panels. They are easy to clean, easy to clean, but can not withstand too high temperatures. Sensitivity to mechanical damage, pays off with their low cost;
- Tile (artificial and natural). Universal, durable material, which withstands all tests of the atmosphere of the kitchen. Panel design easily adapts to different stylistic solutions;
- Brick. Shockproof, provides high-quality sound and heat insulation. It differs cheaply, but without additional finishing it will be suitable only for a narrow group of styles;
- Wallpaper. For the kitchen, you can use only special, heavy-duty versions (vinyl). Allow to embody any designer fantasies;
- Wood paneling. Easy to install, relatively inexpensive. The material must necessarily be treated with special substances that will increase resistance to decay processes;
- Decorative plaster. Allows you to hide flaws and wall defects. With its help, you can repeat any invoice;
- A rock. It is durable, does not promote the reproduction of bacteria, it is easy to clean. Of the shortcomings, only the high cost of natural material is noted.
Cork panels have become fashionable lately. They are safe for human health, absorb noise and retain heat.
There is another option for decorative wall decoration - mosaic. She will give the room some zest. And the type of design for all styles is suitable, because its variations are mass. Even for a solid high tech, mirror pieces in the form of squares are used.
Protective apron обычно оформляется в качестве акцента. Он отличается от остальной отделки стен материалом исполнения, цветом и рисунком. Для оформления кухонного фартука применяют следующие материалы:
- Ceramic tile. A classic material that is used both in one color and with drawings;
- A rock. Spectacular and stylish decoration;
- Glass. The hardened material is used. Such aprons, as a rule, are made to order;
- Mosaic. Allows you to create complex compositions;
- Porcelain tiles. Heavy-duty material, which includes dye pigments, silicates, quartz sand and two types of clay. Can imitate any texture. It differs in high cost;
- Wooden panels. Gradually disappear into the past, as this material in the kitchen is replaced by stronger analogs;
- Mirror apron. Performed in three cables: panels, mosaic and tiles. Such material is not afraid of moisture, temperature, or fungus;
- Steel. Ideal for high-tech kitchens. They note its strength and durability. Seamless metal sheet will become a stylish design element. Especially effective looks with backlight;
- Brick. Sounds like a line of "industrial" styles. A successful combination is considered ceramic tile, imitating brickwork. Has a lot of color variations.
Organization of kitchen space
Moving around the kitchen has a cyclic character: putting food in the fridge, processing it, preparing food, washing dishes, transferring the remains of the meal to the storage space. For this reason, the main conditions for the proper organization of space: the absence of obstacles to these repetitive actions and the convenient location of the most frequently visited places.
Types of planning
When planning the kitchen, you need to decide on the option, based on the rule of the "golden triangle", when the washing zone, hob and refrigerator are separated from each other at a distance of 60 to 300 cm. There are several ways of arranging furniture in the kitchen:
- Linear layout. Furniture is placed along one wall;
- Parallel. The furniture elements are located along two opposite walls;
- Corner layout. Furniture is placed near two walls, which are next to each other;
- Island. The hob and washing area are arranged in the middle of the kitchen (the size of the room is not less than 25 sq.m.).
Zoning kitchen-living room
Owners of two-room apartments easier to fit in the housing all the necessary areas: bedroom, living room, dining room and kitchen. Now more often there are so-called studios. The practice of using one large room for living came to us from Europe. In the studio apartment, the kitchen and dining area are conventionally placed together. Naturally, space must be demarcated. There are several options:
- Light. The intermediate region between the zones is highlighted, creating the illusion of a conditional boundary;
- The color. Both functional areas are made in the same style, but using different shade bases;
- Decorative ceilings. Arches or false walls will serve as an obvious divider in the room;
- "Steps" on the ceiling or floor;
- Furniture. As a basis for zoning can be "through" racks or bar counters;
- Mobile partitions. Most often, screens are used for this purpose. They are easily cleaned if necessary, but the fabric partitions in the kitchen are not advisable, as the material will absorb odors.
Kitchen with balcony
The kitchen that has access to the balcony or loggia can be "continued" due to this extra space. The window and the door between them are dismantled, and the partition is made out for a bar counter or demolished. This practice is relevant for small kitchens up to 8 sq. M. If the owners also have to combine it with the dining room, the latter can be completely transferred to the balcony. The worktop in this case is used "longitudinal" under the wall, and the chairs are placed in a line, like in a cafe. During the meal, the family can enjoy the views from the window and feel slightly isolated, but this design has become fashionable lately. An ordinary balcony can turn into a stylish storage room for food storage or a separate recreation area, where the hostess will hold breaks between household affairs.
In the kitchen, complex combinations of light sources are used. They not only allow you to cook or eat in a comfortable environment, but also emphasize the dignity of the decoration. There are several lighting options that are being worked out at the design stage:
- The ceiling chandelier is complemented by lamps along the perimeter of the room. This option will illuminate all the most remote corners of the room;
- The main light source is combined with LEDs. Usually they are located in the apron area, so that the hostess can work more conveniently;
- The main light is combined with the decorative illumination of the furniture. The latter will highlight the design features. The main effect is achieved due to glare and reflection of light on the surface of the headset. Usually this way of organizing lighting gives the kitchen a touch of elegance.
Naturally, in addition to conventional methods, the owner can independently come up with a unique option.
Selection of textiles and decor
Textiles are considered the main decorative element, which brings comfort to the room. In the kitchen of the fabric are performed:
- Towels and napkins;
- Potholders and caps on teapots;
- Covers for chairs.
Depending on the characteristics of the tissue, three types are distinguished:
- Natural. Is produced and natural materials. Resistant to fading;
- Synthetic. Quickly becomes worthless (loses shape, fades). The kitchen is rarely used;
- Combined type. Combines the advantages of natural materials and eliminates the disadvantages of synthetics.
For the kitchen choose textiles that can "survive" numerous washing and yet not lose shape and beautiful appearance. In this room, the concentration of various odors is high, which will be absorbed by the tissue, along with fat particles.
Kitchen design is developed independently or attracted by a specialist. If you decide to test your designer talents, then study the basic features of the style that will be embodied in this room. Any space can be competently beat and turn its flaws into unique features. It is enough to connect your imagination and come to the matter from a creative point of view. Only in this case the kitchen will become not just a functional room, but also the "central hub" of the apartment, where domestic and guests will be happy to gather.