Decorative pond in the country is a unique element of landscape design, an object for pleasant contemplation. In addition, the pond will moisten the air and improve the illumination of the garden, thanks to the reflective surface of the water surface. If you are thinking about arranging a personal artificial pond, you just need to competently approach the choice of style, lighting and decorative elements.
There is some specificity if a pond is planned to be equipped with live fish: for example, with koi carp. In this case, it will be important to provide them with the optimum water temperature, which depends on the breed of fish.
Earth and waterproofing works
You have chosen a place for a pond and have determined what form it will be. Now it's time to dig the foundation pit. First, turning points and outlines are marked with pegs. Then the terraces come off, 30 cm deep and 20 cm wide. Several levels of terraces can be formed to house plants on them.
Now the main bowl is being dug out. The level of the banks should be about 45 ° C. The walls of the bowl should be tapered downwards to prevent soil shedding and reduce the weight of water. The minimum depth of the reservoir should not exceed 60-80 cm: a shallow pond will completely freeze in winter, and in the summer it will become very warm, which will make it impossible to breed flora and fauna.
If waterproofing is planned for the film, a moat depth of about 15 cm will break off to fix it around the perimeter. After the foundation pit is ready, its bottom is leveled, all stones and roots that can damage the film are removed. The surface is poured with clean washed sand for 5 cm, a monolithic slab of concrete M150 is poured on top. After solidification, it is completely covered with a geotextile cloth. All these measures will save the waterproofing film from damage and extend its service life.Read also: Stones for landscape design +50 photo examples of use
The next stage will be waterproofing - laying of butyl rubber rubber or PVC films. The size of the canvas is calculated from the total length of the pond and twice the depth. In order to fix the canvas along the edge, it is sufficient for about half a meter of the stock. The sheet is laid out freely, fixing the edges with bricks along the edge. To eliminate the negative impact of groundwater, a reliable drainage system is created, which is also included in the waterproofing system.
All the above waterproofing works are carried out before concreting, if this form of the waterproofing device is chosen. When creating small ponds, concrete works are first carried out, and then the surface of concrete is processed in several layers with a mixture of Hydroshield.
The device of the concrete foundation with own hands
Concrete work begins before waterproofing with casting a base plate made of concrete M150, which is designed to protect the bowl of the reservoir from soil movements. At the top of this slab, after its drying, waterproofing is laid.
After the base was excavated under the bowl, a drainage system was arranged, a sand and gravel cushion 20-30 cm thick, a concrete preparation 10 cm thick, reinforced the walls of the pool. To do this, you need an A 12 mm armature. The rods are connected by a binding wire in the form of a grid with cells of 20 x 20 cm.
Installing mortgages is an important stage of work. Before the beginning of the shuttering work, the following mortgages are installed: bottom drain, injectors, headlights, skimmers. An electrician is also installed. Installation of the formwork is carried out with a moisture resistant plywood of 15 mm thickness and wooden support bars. Quality formwork will help to save material and other leveling agents.
Concreting is made by heavy concrete of high grades with plasticizers. The walls vibrate to prevent the formation of voids. It is more convenient to pour the bowl in 2 receptions - first the bottom, then the walls. To prevent water from penetrating through the cold seam of a leaky joint, a self-expanding bentonite cord is inserted into the joint when pouring, increasing by 6 times when exposed to water.
Aligning the basin is done with a plaster layer. With plaster, you can achieve the ideal smoothness of the pool bowl. The plastered surface of the bowl does not have cracks, voids, depressions and other irregularities.
Devices for creating water effects and lighting
If the pond was originally planned with the use of water effects: fountains, cascades, jets, then it must be preliminarily brought underground, waterproof electrical cable. Lighting and pump can be connected to one source.
What elements of energy design can be implemented in the design of the pond in the country:
- Fountain closed cycle, where the pump from the reservoir drives water into the bowl of the fountain, from where the water again flows into the tank. Subsequently, the water again flows into the reservoir.
- Cascade or waterfall is better located on the shore, where it will be in harmony with the Alpine hill.
- As a highlight, you can use lamps located in the water, above the water and even built into the body of the fountain. On the contour you can install garden lights, recharging from the sun and giving light in the dark.
Aquatic plants in the design
There is a huge variety of aquatic plants. To design the pond looked attractive and functioned normally, you need to have the following types of aquatic plants present:
- Oxygenators are plants that release oxygen. They carry out biological water purification and are a food for fish (for example, for koi carps). These include the Turcha swamp, hornwort, horny ears, water sprocket.
- Floating plants serve to decorate the mirror of the pond. They can be placed in containers on underwater terraces. The most popular are duckweed, watercolor, azolla, eichornia thick-petioled.
- For shallow ponds used in combination with floating deep-sea plants. They also land in containers. The most simple in the care are the water lily, the egg, the apogeton.
- Embankment plants are necessary to decorate the contours of the pond and to protect water from overheating. Usually, for these purposes, low embankment plants are used: fern, thuja, barberry, juniper, etc. Other plants planted in pots also look good.
Decoration of coast and pond
There are a lot of ways of designing the waterfront of the pond:
- use of large stones of different shapes. As the main types of stone for decoration use marble, granite, sandstone, quartzite, etc .;
- construction of decking and bridges from logs;
- decoration of the beach with slabs or tiles;
- a special decorative film, covered immediately with a layer of gravel and imitating rocky terrain.
Choosing a way to design a reservoir, you need to build on its size and shape. The size of the stone must be proportional to the pond itself. Large stones will be harmoniously combined with a large pond, and small ones - with a small one. Ideally, the shape of the stones should be similar.
Large boulders are laid along the perimeter so that part of the stone hangs over the water. Do not need to make a continuous coastline of stones. In the edging of the pond, plants and stones should alternate in random order. After placing all the stones, they must be fixed in the cement, dipping into the solution at a third of their height.
Reservoirs of strict geometric shapes are better edged with similar materials: tiles, logs, boards.
The design of the pond can be different - the main thing is that it is combined with the landscape of the site. A variety of stylistic solutions allows you to create amazing compositions that demonstrate the beauty of the water element.
The pond is an obligatory companion of Chinese gardens. Traditionally, the Chinese pond should be led by a path of large boulders, and the banks should smoothly descend into the water. Through the pond, often a small wooden bridge was tossed around, and next to it a pavilion was set up for contemplation and tea drinking. Koi and lotus carps are a typical element for a Chinese pond. A pond in Chinese style is decorated with bright and lush vegetation.
French пруд — образец элегантности и утонченности и вместе с тем строгости форм. Он привлекает четкими границами и аккуратной формой. Как правило берега во французском стиле поднимаются над уровнем земли. Для этого стиля характеры фонтаны, каскады, ступени и скульптуры.See also: Coniferous in the landscape design of the villa site +75 photo
A characteristic feature of the Italian pond is its symmetry. A pond of regular geometric shape, usually with a decorative fountain or cascade type, is at the head of the garden. Since the Italian landscapes - regular, composite, terraced, in the pond, too, there can be several levels. The banks frame a lot of ornamental plants in terracotta pots, or in tubs and in beautiful containers. Often, Italian ponds decorate with street lights.
Japanese пруд должен максимально походить на естественный. Вы никогда не найдете в природе прямоугольных прудов, поэтому их нет и в японском стиле. В японском пруду может быть водопад, но никак не фонтан. Вообще искусство создания японского пруда схоже с созданием бонсаи — все настоящее, но в миниатюре. Пруд должен быть похож на океан, камушек на берегу — на скалу, возвышающуюся над океаном. На берегу можно поставить скульптуру с изображением Будды, дракона, животного или птицы, чтобы она отражалась в водной глади.
Пруд в английском стиле гораздо легче обустроить, так как он не требует четкости границ. Линии английского пруда должны быть плавными. English водоем обычно создается пейзажного типа — около него в изобилии растут деревья и кустарники. Смотрятся английский пруды естественно.
A few tips for caring
After the device in the suburban area of the pond and landscape design, the reservoir will have to be cared for. What is included in the concept of care:
- In spring, the filters and the pump are switched on normally in mid-April. Immediately need to carry out bottom cleaning and cleaning the surface of debris. At the same time, annual plants are planted.
- Since June, tropical plants are planted.
- Bottom cleaning should be regular and carried out using a floor vacuum cleaner.
- In summer, the skimmer must necessarily remove debris from the surface of the water surface.
- In summer, the thread-like algae must be removed. If oxygenerators do not have time to purify water from green algae, you can apply special chemistry - algaecides.
- Water lilies and irises need to be fertilized with fertilizers.
- All summer it is necessary to control the water quality by special tests.
- In autumn, tropical plants are taken out of the pond, placed in containers with water and put on hibernation in a light, non-freezing room.
- In autumn, during the fall of the fall, the surface of the pond will be more conveniently covered with a fine mesh, so that the yellow leaves do not sink to the bottom, and by winter remove it.
- In winter, the water from the pond merges. It is necessary to drain water from all pipes and hoses. Dismantle and clean filters and pumps.
The reservoir on the garden plot is prestigious, fashionable and simply beautiful. If you keep a large deep pond with fish is troublesome enough, then you can build a small pond with your own money and even the owner of a small plot.