A carefully designed lighting design should not only transform the interior, but provide comfort and preservation of the health of the inhabitants of the house. At the stage of creating a project, various nuances are taken into account.
The intensity of natural light is directly related to the time of day, depends on the time of year, geographical location and atmospheric phenomena. Natural light - the most optimal, in terms of physiology and life. But it is not enough for a full-fledged functioning. That is why so serious attention is paid to the planning of artificially created additional lighting. It includes incandescent lamps, fluorescent and LED devices.
The main variants of artificial lighting:
This is the most common form, without which there is not a single room. Light comes from above and spreads evenly throughout the room. The most striking example - a chandelier in the center of the ceiling. It does not give a light figure with sharp edges, which can be clearly discerned on the floor or on the wall.
General lighting можно разделить на:
- directed - the most common option. It is characterized by the creation of a single light spot. It can be arranged using open fixtures in the form of a cone, a hemisphere, a truncated sphere, a cube, a trapezoid, a cylinder, a rectangle;
- indirect - formed by reflecting light from walls or ceiling;
- scattered - light is dissipated through a frosted glass or a paper lampshade of a spherical shape. He does not strain his eyes and is the most comfortable for a person. The rays spread evenly at an angle of up to 360 degrees. This is due to the use of opaque covered bubbles;
- mixed - is formed due to the special form of translucent luminaires with an open top and bottom. These modern models are increasingly used in the design of apartments or offices. The glow emanates from all sides - it breaks through the walls, reflects off the ceiling and walls, falls from above a direct light spot. This way of filling the space with light is the most productive.
Акцентное или местное освещение используют для выделения определенных участков. Его основная функция – привлечение внимания к отдельным объектам или зонам в помещении. Оно может нести чисто декоративную нагрузку – подсветка картины, скульптуры или иметь практическое значение. С помощью точечных включений мы можем безопасно передвигаться по лестнице, ориентироваться в темном шкафу, отыскивать нужные предметы на прикроватной тумбочке. Accent lighting позволяет играть с пространством, выхватывая из темноты ту или иную зону, наделяя их главным значением в зависимости от их использования. На время ужина подсвечивается столовая группа. Затем мы перемещаемся на диван, чтобы почитать в тишине или напротив, поболтать с домочадцами. В многофункциональных помещениях, к примеру, в однокомнатных квартирах или студиях, такой способ подсветки просто необходим. Он позволяет заниматься своими делами, не мешая друг другу. Для создания акцентов используют торшеры, настольные лампы, потолочные подвесные устройства, бра, точечное освещение, светодиодную ленту.
There are three types of accent lighting:
- sharp - the formation of a bright spot with clearly defined edges. The light does not dissipate, the space outside the beam is immersed in darkness. This technique is used in the theater, when only a small area is selected, on which the action takes place. Often it is used to concentrate attention on the object. It is suitable for emphasizing the beauty of collectible objects in glass showcases, highlighting expressive architectural elements - columns, bas-reliefs, arches. The beam can be directed up, down, or directly at the object at an angle of 30 degrees;
- softened - is created with the help of lamps equipped with a power regulator. Allows you to effectively, but unobtrusively highlight the necessary details. Obvious advantages - achieving a less dramatic atmosphere and saving electricity;
- soft - is organized to focus attention on objects that are harmful to bright light - paintings and other art objects. Formed with matte lampshades, placed above the object.
Good illumination is necessary for effective and safe operation. In conditions of deficiency of light, the burden on eyesight increases, which can lead to its decrease. Because of the constant stress, not only the eyes get tired, but also the fatigue of the body generally increases. A person can not work long and productively in the twilight. The effectiveness and complexity of such activities as drawing, knitting, jewelry, sewing, reading, writing, cooking directly depends on the quality of lighting and its direction. The general light falls from above, so a shadow is created on the workspace. It is necessary to equip this zone with special directional sources - a table lamp, a sconce, a floor lamp, and point pivots. It is better not to use luminescent variants in these zones, as they often flash and distort colors, and this negatively affects the eyesight. Halogen devices are much better perceived, but they are not economical enough. Therefore, the best choice - LED construction, which produce a pleasant glow for the eyes and consume fewer times the power.
The essence of this option is a combination of the previously described methods. The design of any interior necessarily contains a combination of different types of lighting. In some premises dominates the general, in others accent. For example, in the living room the central role is given to a luxurious or laconic multi-rounder chandelier. And in the office or bedroom, a bright overall light is not so important, but here you can not do without a good table lamp or sconce. Light is one of the most popular tools for zoning rooms. In the children's room, in addition to general, local devices are needed in the work and play area. In the kitchen - above the dining table and above the surface for cooking. In the bathroom and the hallway - in the mirror or decorative niche area. The combination of different options can be observed in any room, but it takes on special significance in the multifunctional. In living rooms combined with a bedroom, kitchen or dining room it is especially important to provide for the possibility of various backlight scenarios.
Rules and regulations
The use of artificial lighting caused the need to develop clear requirements for its parameters. On how competently it is organized, the person's well-being, emotional mood, ability to work qualitatively, preservation of good vision depends. Therefore, for certain rooms, there are certain standards. It is easy to guess that for the office and the closet their values will not be the same. The main document, which must be oriented, calculating the number and power of appliances in the apartment - SNiP 23-05-95. It regulates the natural and artificial lighting of residential, educational, commercial, industrial premises, as well as public gardens, parks, streets, squares.
The unit of measurement of illumination is Lux -1 lumen per square. m. The norm depends on the purpose of the room. For example, for a living room, bedroom or dining room is enough 150 Lux. In the nursery it is necessary to provide 200Lk, in the bathroom or kitchen there are already 250, and in the office all 300. In the hallway, pantry, in the attic or in the basement, 50-60 Lx are required.
About light sources
The natural sources include the sun's rays, the glow of stars, the aurora borealis, the moonlight. Artificial resources are also fire: a fire, torches, candles, and gas lamps, and electric lamps. The latter are divided into several types:
- incandescent lamps - contain a body of heat, which produces a glow. A spiral of tungsten or carbon filament is placed in the structure. Then a vacuum is created in the flask. This prevents oxidation of the metal. At the moment of the closure of the electrical circuit, heating occurs, which causes the heating element to glow. The advantages of such lamps are that they can withstand the temperature drops well. Without problems will work in a cold corridor or a hot bath. The disadvantage of such lamps is that they expend a lot of energy and produce a large amount of heat;
- halogen - their difference from the previous ones is that the flask is filled with halogen vapor. They are used for the most powerful devices. Gas makes it possible to significantly increase the temperature of the spiral and prolong the period of operation. Like conventional incandescent lamps, halogen sources spend a lot of energy for heating. Another disadvantage is the dependence on voltage surges;
- luminescent - flasks with a special coating applied from the inside. It emits light due to the constant burning of vapors enclosed in a flask. In comparison with conventional lamps, the life of these devices is much longer. The obvious plus is economy. Lamps consume 5-7 times less electricity than halogen lamps. The disadvantages include the complexity of use - the need for additional devices - a trigger mechanism, a starter. There are other disadvantages - flicker and sensitivity to low temperatures, air currents and humidity of the environment;
- energy saving - a subtype of fluorescent lamps. To the listed qualities of sources of this type is added the spiral form and the presence of a standard socle. Thanks to this, the lamps can be used in ordinary chandeliers and luminaires without any additional designs;
- LED - revolutionary devices based on the use of LEDs. Unlike their predecessors, they do not heat up and do not flicker, and they also tolerate the impact of the medium and the energy drops. The high cost of the instruments is more than compensated by the long service life and unsurpassed low consumption of resources.
Natural light and how to regulate it
Direct entry into the room of natural light can bring some discomfort. Reflecting from the mirror and glossy surfaces, sharp sun rays irritate the eyesight. In addition, they heat the room too much, and this is not always desirable, especially in the summer. Therefore, there are various ways to protect against daylight penetration and to regulate its quantity. Traditionally, for this purpose, use a variety of curtains, tulle. The choice of material depends on the needs of the owners of the premises. You can choose light transparent curtains, which only slightly adjust the illumination. Or blind curtains that create absolute darkness in the room, even in the daytime. As a regulator of light use blinds, roller blinds. There is also a more radical solution - to install double-glazed windows with a special coating to reflect the sun's rays. This is especially true for windows in the roof of the attic floor. And for those who do not have the opportunity to change the glass, there are plenty of suggestions for a tint film of self-adhesive.
If there is not enough light, it can be "caught" with the help of:
- expansion of windows;
- introduction of reflective surfaces, light furnishings and furniture into the interior;
- removal of trees and bushes closing windows.
About luminaires and their placement
A harmonious scenario of lighting is created, starting from the features of the room, the direction of design. Correctly chosen accents allow you to visually change the space to correct its shortcomings and emphasize the advantages.
"Queen" of lighting design is still a chandelier. In a large room with high ceilings, massive structures are used on a long suspension. Low ceilings are an excuse to shorten the length of the cord or chain and direct the rays upwards, creating the illusion of raised arches. Spot lights can be a complement to the "main decoration" of the living room or act as a "foundation" in the corridor or bathroom. Sconces, spotlights, floor lamps, table lamps - serve as a highly specialized addition to the main light. Each of them has its own responsibilities - lighting the workspace, places for rest, reading, cooking or eating. LED panels, cords, and fibers are excellent tools for decorating a two-level stretch ceiling or walls. Cords, built into gipsokartonnye niches, can be multi-color. In order to change the color, you just need to press the button on the control panel. With the help of LEDs create a variety of patterns that look stunning at night.
Is there a style of lighting?
To answer this question, you need to carefully look at the devices that help the light to fill the room. Style directly depends on the characteristics of lamps - shape, color, materials of manufacture. In classical interiors chandeliers and wall lamps with crystal pendants are welcomed. In modern reign chrome devices. Pop art is filled with bright, sometimes awkward plafonds. The interior of the country house in the style of Provence will "warm" the textile lampshades. Loft is unthinkable without production searchlights, track systems and spots. Country houses add rustic color forged or wooden designs. Modern make even more impressive intricate lines and shapes. The chosen style influences the number of light sources, their power and placement.Read also: LED ribbon in the interior +50 photo lighting ideas
Room lighting design
The correct organization of lighting is one of the primary design tasks. This is the most important component of the comfort and coziness of your home. In each of the rooms there are own rules for the selection and installation of certain devices. Light should emphasize the advantages of the chosen design, create a certain atmosphere.
Entrance hall and corridor
The hallway, as a rule, is devoid of sunlight. The use of artificial sources makes it possible to turn a gloomy corridor into a bright attractive waiting room. Cumbersome devices here to anything - why "eat" and without that a small space. In addition, the use of volumetric chandeliers and floor lamps in a small room is unsafe. It is more expedient to place here a ceiling dot illumination, and on the wall near the mirror hang the sconce. Amplify the illumination of the LED lighting cabinet or decorative niches, as well as a mirror wall.
In the living room the situation is reversed. Here the bulky chandelier is more than appropriate. Because this is a common room, you need to provide different scenarios for highlighting. Sconce above the armchair, floor lamp at the couch, the device of the LED fiber on the coffee table perfectly fit into the interior. LED design with various programs will help to relax on a weekday and decorate a festive party.
Traditional design of the bedroom provides the presence of a ceiling light - chandelier or built-in suspended ceiling devices, lamps in the area of bedside tables and dressing table. In addition, they use LED lighting for niches, cabinets, bed contours. Special chic gives the room theatrical mirrors, paintings with built-in lamps.
The division of this space into zones causes the use of common light and the accentuation of individual areas. Kitchen sets are often equipped with built-in appliances, otherwise you can attach several energy-saving devices under the top drawers. Over the dining table are placed long hanging ceiling or track structures. The main thing is not to use lamps with a bluish glow - it makes dishes unappetizing.
Children's – универсальное помещение. Ребенок здесь учится, играет, отдыхает и спит. Каждый вид деятельности предполагает использование специального пространства. Освещение зон должно соответствовать их предназначению. В учебной необходим направленный источник, который позволит не напрягать зрение. Например, складная настольная лампа на прищепке или бра. В то же время нужно избегать излишне ярких, мерцающих приборов. Они способствуют утомляемости и порче глаз. Игровая зона освещается сверху – для этой цели подойдет люстра на несколько рожков. Не стоит вешать хрустальные или кованные абажуры – это небезопасно. Игра в мяч или исполнение «колеса» несовместимы с длинными подвесами. Лучше выбрать легкий пластиковый экземпляр в цветах основной палитры. Зона отдыха или сна требует мягкого рассеянного свечения. Лучше всего с этой задачей справится ночник или виниловые фосфоресцирующие наклейки. Они бывают разной тематики, но самая популярная безусловно – звездное небо. Для комнаты подростка в мансарде используют трековые системы и ряды одинаковых однорожковых люстр или спотов. Часто их фиксируют на скатах крыши.
The main condition is a good illumination of the desktop, behind which busy people spend whole days. This has a direct effect on their effectiveness, prevents fatigue, preserves eye health. The top light is not so important. He can be distracted and unobtrusive. The office does not need palace chandeliers, enough built-in devices and a table lamp with a flexible or folding foot.
In any room in the house, the lights should be functional, safe, in harmony with the rest of the interior.