According to a common legend, the idea of creating ladders was planted by animals. Goat paths, which had improvised steps, became the prototype of this design. The oldest staircase was found in the salt mine. It was made of wood, but it retained its appearance thanks to the "preservative" effect of salt. The first technical requirements for the stairs were the ancient Egyptians. Their letters speak about the architecture of those times. Stairs in the interior of the houses of the Egyptians were adorned rarely. They were given a sacred meaning in the pyramids. After all, in fact, this man-made burial mound symbolized the quadripartite road to heaven to the god Ra. Even now in buildings where more than one floor, without a ladder can not do. Over time, they began to be replaced by more convenient elevators, but in each house there is still an "outdated" option as an alternative.
- Steps. Horizontal surfaces on which a person comes when descending / ascending.
- Bowstring and kosoury. The main supporting parts, which are usually located on the sides of the steps.
- Protections. Represented by handrails, balusters, racks and handrails along the adjacent wall.
- Beams, boltsa and columns. These are vertical supporting supports.
According to the types of structures, the stairs are divided into three main types:
- Screw. They are a twisting spiral and are installed in rooms where there is little space. Examples of spiral staircases were seen in historical films, where the ascent to the high towers of old palaces was demonstrated.
- Boltcevye. In the construction of such stairs, a frame is used from the fastening for each individual step and the stacking posts. The main load is transferred to the ceiling and floor.
- Marching. The most common variant, which uses either oblique (closed models) or strings (open models).
The latter type, in turn, is classified into subspecies depending on the shape of the ladder:
- Straight lines. The most primitive option is when the element has no turns and takes up a lot of space.
- L-shaped or simple two-level. In them two marches (sections of a ladder) are placed in relation to each other at an angle of 90 degrees.
- U-shaped. A more complex design assumes the presence of two parallel marches, between which is either an interstage or a floor area (span)
- Rounded or radial. The design resembles a screw ladder, and the number of turns is not limited, but the exit from the march in the direction must coincide with the entrance.
- Three-section. A complex model, which is a double L-shaped ladder.
- Trapezoidal. The most intricate version, which has no restrictions on the choice of the angle between the marches. This creative model is ideal for rooms of non-standard shapes, as it can be customized for them.
By the way, there is a separate category of stairs - combined. It combines different models. Usually the need for such complex elements arises in rooms of irregular shapes.
How to design a ladder correctly
Stairs are needed not only for owners of holiday cottages, but also for owners of two-story apartments. Even from the street to the house usually leads a small ladder, which compensates for the fundamental difference between the height of the threshold and the level of the earth. The standard layout of the average dacha includes a kitchen and a living room on the first floor and sleeping rooms on the second floor. It is most convenient to arrange a lift in the hallway. To build a ladder with our own hands is only half the battle, much more time will be spent on its project.Read also: Design of the stairs to the second floor in a private house + 100 photo examples
First of all, it is necessary to familiarize with generally accepted standards. So, the width of a step of 30 cm is considered optimal. This value is recognized as ideal for the average person and does not allow him to get off the step when climbing or descending. The slope should be 45 degrees. Such a recovery will not be too steep and not too flat. The minimum clearance for the design canons is 2 m. However, if owners of high growth or plan to constantly move the cabinets to the second floor, then it can be increased.
The average height of the riser should not exceed 20 cm. The optimal width of the ladder is 1 m, but if there is a free, "orphan" space - this value can be increased. Decrease is not recommended, since the simultaneous descent / lifting of two people along such a narrow passage will already cause difficulties. Of course, the basic values are not limited to. The project begins with the layout of the location and the choice of location. Then make a detailed drawing, choose materials and style.
Individual design of the element can be invented independently or use already ready-made ideas of professionals.
Choice of design and style
Each style has a number of features that do not bypass the stairs. For the classical direction, wooden marching structures are ideally suited. They are considered the most reliable. As the main material choose valuable woods, among which the leading oak. The fences are made of polished wooden elements of soft forms, varnished. In the rustic style, the staircases made of a bar with rough processing look organically. Handrails and decorative elements are created from ordinary rounded logs. In modern interiors use combined materials. For example, wooden steps harmonize with the hardened glass railings.
With furniture in the style of Provence, wooden staircases are combined. After installation, they are painted in a traditional white color for this style. Stairs are made in darker shades, as this part of the design is the most marquess. In minimalism, a ladder creative approach is welcomed in the form of "bare" steps, which are built into the wall or located between the "veil" of the thinnest vertical supports resembling strings. In the loft style, a luxurious combination of wood and wrought iron is used. This method once again emphasizes the refinement of the direction.
The staircase can become a connecting link between the rooms, which are decorated in different styles. With the help of decorative elements, this transition can be made smooth and unobtrusive. Regardless of the location and area of the room, the staircase will always act as its main decoration. Because of its massive nature, this design simply does not work out as a background. Therefore, the choice of stylistic decision is very important, especially in those country houses, where the ladder "in the front" meets the guests from the doorstep.
Screw stairs are ideal for directions with a touch of romance. They are elegant and airy, easily fit into small rooms. The main thing is not to overdo it with the number of turns so that your head does not feel dizzy.
Location of the staircase
Most often, stairs are installed in the hallway or hall, thereby allowing without a long transition to superfluous rooms immediately from the threshold to climb to the desired floor. Also there are variants with lateral corridors, similar to typical high-rise buildings, but this model of accommodation is more suitable for large cottages with a lot of internal premises.
By location in the room there are only two types of stairs:
- The central ones. They are installed in the middle of the room, thereby turning into a luxurious element of the interior, on which attention will necessarily be sharpened.
- Wall-mounted. Such stairs save space and are compactly located "on the sidelines".
Original models with windows in the spans look original. When decorating, they are made in the same style and the opening becomes part of the interior composition.See also: Bathroom design in a private house +75 photo arrangement
The most popular material remains wood. For a ladder, you must choose a quality tree, since the design safety directly depends on it. Of the types of wood noted:
- Pine. Budget, affordable option, which has a beautiful natural pattern. However, the pine quickly turns yellow and has a short service life, but it can be easily processed.
- Beech. Durable, but whimsical stuff. Even after treatment with special means, the beech can easily deform when the temperature or humidity changes. Not suitable for seasonal private homes, which the owners visit from time to time and do not maintain a temperature regime throughout the year.
- Birch tree. Available kind of wood with a nice pattern. The treatment lends itself easier than the pine. Can boast a long period of operation.
- Ash. Durable material, which due to hardness is difficult to handle. Not everyone will like the texture of ash.
- Oak. The kind of tree that does not know equals among domestic "competitors". Durable, durable, reliable. For quality it is necessary to pay well.
Also, the stairs are made of concrete, heavy-duty glass and metal. There are also combined variants. Concrete stairs are monumental. It is these structures are located in multi-storey buildings. Do not be mistaken about the unpretentious appearance of the concrete stairs. If you pour such a design in a private house, then it can be given an original form, and additional decorations completely exclude the similarity with a similar "official" element. Metal stairs are good in that they are combined with any other materials. Structures made of glass are considered "an amateur", as they are suitable only for a narrow line of modern styles, headed by high-tech.
Kinds of handrails according to the material of execution
The handrail is considered the final touch in the design of the staircase. They are classified according to form, material of execution and design. Although their primary function is protective, decorative is given increasing importance. The material is divided into rails by:
Each material has its own advantages and fits strictly to certain styles.
Metal перила выполняют из стали, железа, алюминия, латуни, бронзы и чугуна. Последний материал актуален для уличных лестниц. Нержавеющая сталь и железо относятся к универсалам, которые с успехом выдерживают, как воздействие дождей и морозов, так и комнатный климат. Бронза и латунь капризны в уходе, поэтому применяются только в классических стилях, где изысканный блеск подчеркивает элегантность обстановки. Мягкий, податливый алюминий применяется только внутри дома, но предоставляет возможность тонирования в любой оттенок по желанию владельцев. Для любого из этих материалов характерны:
- Strength and durability. Metal is not afraid of moisture, or temperature changes.
- Easy to clean (except bronze and brass). The only enemy of metal is rust. To save from it the periodic application of a layer of an anticorrosive paint will help.
- High fire safety.
The railing on the technology of creation is divided into four types:
- Prefabricated or modular, that is, consisting of individual elements, which are connected to each other during installation on site with fasteners. Have a light weight.
- Welded models are assembled "tightly", which ensures the safety of the structure. The only weakness is weld seams. From rust it will have to be processed with special care.
- In the process of casting, structures are created by filling molten material with special molds. Molded railing are distinguished by their exquisite shapes.
- Forging allows you to create unique, elegant patterns and ornaments to fill the railing. Forged handmade products are of high value.
Any of the above options can easily be combined with other materials. For example, forging organically looks with wood, and practical and modern model designs tend to glass and polyurethane.
Made of natural wood
Wood is a material out of fashion and out of time. It will always remain relevant. Wooden railings will organically join the style of the chalet, loft, ethnicity and classics. The only drawback of the material is the sensitivity to moisture and temperature changes. To extend the service life, any wood must be impregnated with special compounds. Of the species preference is given to the oak, beech and birch. In expensive apartments used valuable exotic breeds, which will cost a pretty penny. By the way, for a spiral staircase a qualitative imitation of a tree made of polyvinyl chloride is used. Its top layer accurately repeats the unique natural pattern of the material.Read also: Kitchen design in a wooden house - 60 examples of interior in the photo
Glass railings на подсознательном уровне вызывают чувство беспокойства, так как материал ассоциируется с хрупкостью и риском получить порезы. Эти опасения совершенно напрасны. На самом деле стекло, которое используют для перил, не имеет ничего общего (разве что кроме прозрачности), с материалом для изготовления посуды и бутылок. Его покрывают специальной защитной пленкой, которая в случае сильного удара предотвращает осыпание осколков. Похожий эффект имеют стекла машин, которые при столкновении украшаются сеточкой из трещин. Материал отличается прочностью, экологичностью и долговечностью. Его края тщательно обрабатываются, исключая возможность получения порезов.
If desired, the glass can be painted in any color or decorated with pictures, panoramas, matte patterns by etching the picture on the surface.
Combined варианты разнообразны, но всегда направлены на достижение главной цели — повышение прочности. Оптимальным тандемом считаются деревянные перила в сочетании со стойками из металла. Эта комбинация универсальна и подходит как для классики, так и для современных стилей. Роскошно смотрится трио из стеклянного наполнения, металлического каркаса и деревянных перил. Обойдется такое великолепие недешево, но эстетический вид конструкции того стоит.
Luxury stones require an elegant rim. Also with stairs: this element must be emphasized. Its lighting is of a decorative nature and refers to local. Of course, in backlighting there is a practical benefit: to overcome stairs in the dark, having such a guidebook is much easier and safer. For open lighting use the same type of sconces on the walls, hanging lamps and lighting stages. The role of hidden devices is usually taken by neon or LED lamps. They are mounted under stairs or hidden behind special caps attached to the wall near each crossbar.
Neon has a long service life, and LEDs are universal and operate both from the network and from the batteries. In complex designs of stairs, designers even at the design stage provide for a special niche under each step, where in the future will be placed lamps.
How to make space under the stairs
To non-standard models include ladder-racks. This original design element makes it possible to turn an abandoned, empty space into a useful space. Such a rack can be of an open and closed type. If space allows, then books are placed on the shelves, and a cozy reading corner is set up next. For more practical owners under the stairs organize a built-in pantry. In cases where there is a window under the structure, it is supplemented with a low sill-sofa, where you can relax with a cup of tea, while admiring the local beauties. In more luxurious apartments under the stairs, a bar rack is equipped with special holders for glasses from the top. If the house has pets, the space under the construction can become a place to house a neat little house for a pet. A study in this area is also not uncommon. When the deficit of the area in the house is not observed, then this area can be given under a mini-garden with indoor plants.
Stairs have a rich history. If at first they performed only the practical function of the road to other floors, now they managed to become a full-fledged element of the interior of the house. Their design has the same meaning as the design of furniture or a combination of color palette. Do not push the ladder into the far corner, waving it at her hand. With proper approach, it will become the pride of the hosts and a demonstrative example of their decorating talents.