Traditional Russian bath has a long history. While in the enlightened Europe the royal courts invented spirits to mask the smell of unwashed bodies and died of lice, our man performed a weekly washing ritual. The whole family went to the baths without fail on Saturdays. This day was not chosen by chance. On Sunday, the church was to be attended in its purest form, and on weekdays a Russian person worked sweating from dawn to dusk and waited for Bath Day.
Despite the main purpose of the building - cleansing the body, in humans it was associated with dirt. The icons were never hung here, and fortune-telling was held, which was considered unclean. The bath was set on the outskirts, as far as possible from the house: in the kitchen gardens and "hollow places". Fire safety requirements? Not at all, like a dirty building, the bathhouse should not have come into contact with the house. The utensils from it never brought to the living quarters.
Popular steam rooms were also in ancient Rome, whose citizens carefully watched their appearance. On the ruins of the once great empire, the remains of these complexes are preserved, which speak of the high culture of their creators. In Rome, baths were used not only for washing, but also for conducting debates and lively conversations on political, philosophical themes. Now the baths have a modern look, and over their design design work no less than the interior of the house. The building will become a real decoration of the country site. A country house can not do without this pleasant in every sense of the complement. Bathhouse is usually built behind the yard near the recreation area: gazebo, summer kitchen, barbecue and garden. Unfortunately, it is prohibited to combine this structure with other structures into a single complex with regulations that regulate the minimum distance between buildings in private domains. In a typical bathhouse, three rooms are assumed:
- Rest rooms or dressing room;
In various designs, the number of rooms can be reduced or supplemented. For example, if there is a direct outlet to a reservoir or basin, then in the shower (washing) the need disappears. In summer, you can dip into the cool water, and in winter organize a font in the ice. In some luxury versions inside, there may be whole pool complexes. Thus, the owners provide an alternative to hot bathing. At the site bathhouse can be not only a separate structure, in some cases (a small area), the owners to equip space to equip the sauna in his basement, in the attic or on the ground floor. Before you start the erection, the building design is prepared in advance. Since it is considered to be fire hazardous, it is not out of place that there will be a consultation with professionals. Sometimes they erect complex two-storey structures with a miniature fence, veranda, porch, toilet, billiard room and patio. For the erection of such complexes it is better to turn to a professional designer-architect. He will prepare an individual project. With their own hands, the construction of more simple constructions is started. So, let's try to lay out on the shelves a variety of baths, the features of their erection and common mistakes that beginners allow.See also: Composition in the interior +70 photo examples of design
Area of the bath
The size of the bath depends on its performance. If the area of the room is not designed correctly, then too much steam room will have to warm up for a long time, and the heat will quickly evaporate. When calculating the dimensions of the building, first of all they are guided by the steam room. This is the most important premise, the rest are just its complement. Consider following:
- Number of people who will visit the sauna at the same time.
- Dimensions and features of the furnace location (outside or inside).
- Type of fuel. The best option for even warming up the room is still considered to be a stove-heater and wood. However, some use gas and electric heaters, the operational capabilities of which should be comparable to the size of the bath.
- Number of seats-shelves: follows from the first point.
Also the area depends on the size of the plot. If the building is too dense, the bathhouse will be small, as it should be located at a certain distance from other buildings. The most important nuance is the financial capabilities of the owners and the budget for the construction. After all, the bigger the bath, the deeper the wallet will purchase materials for it.
The optimal size for an average family is 5x5 (25 sq.m.). In this building there is a place for a medium size steam room, a rather spacious dressing room and even a shower for one person.
Bath capacity, пожалуй, основная ее характеристика, которую обязательно учитывают еще на этапе проектирования при подготовке чертежа. Планировка, расположение оконных и дверных проемов, проведение коммуникаций — все это будет рассчитываться позже. Самая маленькая банька-бочка может одновременно вместить два-три человека. Ее габариты в среднем варьируются от 2Х2 до 3Х3 и 3на4 метра. Чтобы в баньке одновременно могла отдохнуть семья из четырех человек или такая же небольшая компания, то достаточно строения размерами 4на4 метра. 16 кв.м. относят к оптимальным размерам, которые представляют собой «золотую середину»: строительство не сильно затратно, а помещения не напоминают тесные кладовки. Для большого количества посетителей обустраивают просторные баньки 6Х4 или 5Х5 м. Постройки могут иметь квадратную или прямоугольную формы. Парная обычно занимает самое дальнее место, а перед ней располагают комнату отдыха, предбанник и душевые.
Types of baths
Almost every country has its own bath traditions. For an unaccustomed person, many of them may seem exotic. In each variety of baths, a unique microclimate is created. In some you can spend at least a whole day, and others recommend not to visit often once a week due to excessively aggressive conditions that can negate the entire health effect. The main types include:
- Russian bath (steam sauna). Usually it is wooden structures either from a bar, or decorated with a rounded board. Modern Russian baths except for design and characteristic "scenery" are not much like their ancestors. Traditionally, their hot "heart" - a heater, but recently more often use more simple to operate electric ovens and gas heaters. The air in the Russian bath is hot, but humid. Such a situation the human body suffers with great difficulty, than dry soaring in a Finnish sauna. First, the stones with which the furnace is laid are heated, and then water is poured on them, evaporating instantly. Traditionally in Russian bathhouses the process of soaring is accompanied by "courting" birch brooms along the body. For greater effect in the water soak bunches of medicinal herbs: nettle, thyme, chamomile, celandine. In winter, the procedure is interrupted by "bathing" in snowdrifts or pouring ice water. Woodburning stove is recommended to be heated with birch or alder churochkami.
- Finnish sauna (sauna with dry air). This type has gained popularity in the west. The average room temperature can reach 100 degrees, and the humidity level does not exceed 20-30%. Thus, the soaring takes place due to the dry air. In a Finnish sauna you can spend a lot of time, but you can not use brooms, because you can get severe burns. In terms of size, this type of bath is classified into mini-variants and "family" buildings. The first can be installed even in your apartment. Ready-made mini-bathhouses are purchased in specialized stores.
- The Roman version. In their standard "configuration" includes two rooms: tepidarium and laconium. In one, it's just warm, and in another the temperature reaches 70-90 degrees, and you can sweat properly. Usually their visit is interleaved.
- Hammam (dry air). In this eastern variety of baths you can sit for at least a whole day. The air is hot and dry, but the temperature does not increase above the 50 degree mark.
- Ofuro (water bath). Steam in barrels with heated water is actively practiced in Japan. In fact, it's just a very hot bath of unusual shape.
In addition to the above options, the more exotic buildings are much less likely to be installed: Egyptian sandbanks (vertical and horizontal), Czech "beer", Japanese santo (the same ofuro, but for the whole family), Swedish basta, Indian temaskali, English from hot stones, Moroccan and Indian (ancient) steam rooms.
The type of bath is chosen based on the permissible sizes. In a small corner of the site can fit a bath-barrel, and the Roman bathing complex will require a large quadrature.
The style solution is a combination of exterior design (exterior) and interior decoration (interior). Unlike the design of an apartment or a house, furniture in a simple bath is used at a minimum. In the rest room, chairs and sofas are replaced with spacious benches that are set around the table. In the steam room, the decor is used even less. The most common option is the village style. This interior solution recognizes only simplicity, bordering on primitivism. Untreated surfaces and the most "wild" kind of construction - this is the visiting card of the village style. For decoration use the carving, which decorates the exterior of the house. Bathhouses, designed in accordance with the principles of the French Provence, have a more elegant appearance. Furnishings and surfaces are an imitation of antiquity. In such a room furniture is painted white, and the porch is decorated with a shop with a blanket and pillows in a cheerful flower. Antique style refers to the "ancient" directions: he managed to preserve his characteristics, having passed the test of time. For interior decoration, tile is used, and the room is decorated with fountains and decorative columns that support the domed vault. As a highlight of the interior you can use the old amphorae and statuettes. For the country style is characterized by a ragged raggedness. In the interior and exterior use brick masonry or its imitation (banned in a therma), metal elements and untreated wood. A strict loft breathes unobtrusive luxury. The dressing room and rest room are decorated with chic: expensive carpets on the floor, cushions on benches, multi-level lighting, perhaps even a bar counter. The chalet style descended to us from the alpine slopes: it is simple, but elegant. In the situation prevails a rough tree and wide windows, which creates an almost homely cosiness.
In Russian baths, steam had a special healing effect due to contact with the interior trim of the logs. Wood has "breathing" pores, which exude a unique aroma with high humidity. For this reason, baths are not made from softwoods, since they release resin. For interior decoration is not recommended to use artificial materials, which when heated can emit toxins: PVC panels and tiles, artificial stone, brick, MDF, and chipboard. The latter seem harmless, because for their basis waste from the woodworking industry is used, but the adhesive that holds the sawdust, when heated, can release harmful substances. Cladding of external walls is done by lining. Internal trim with planks of thermolip (special material for baths) or block house. The floor is covered with a board or tiled, and the ceiling is faced with a lining. In order to maintain the required temperature regime for a long time in the building, it is necessary to insulate it qualitatively. For this purpose, three layers of different materials are used:
- Steam insulation. Apply foil insulation.
- Mineral wool. Light and non-flammable material.
- Waterproofing film.
The resulting layered insulating "cake" is covered with decorative materials, which perform a decorative function.
When organizing lighting in a bath, two main features of the microclimate should be taken into account:
- High humidity;
- Elevated temperatures.
Влага считается более опасным «врагом» проводки, так как она способна спровоцировать замыкание в сети, которое часто становится причиной пожара. Лампочки, включатели, проводка и распределительные щитки подбираются из особых вариантов. В банях вся осветительная система должна быть качественно защищена от агрессивного воздействия внутренней среды постройки. В моечной и предбаннике можно использовать обычные лампочки, а для парилки придется приобрести специальные герметичные, которые надежно защитят «внутренности» прибора. Влагонепроницаемым должен быть плафон и корпус пробора. Lighting в парилке не должно быть излишне ярким, так как это не будет способствовать расслаблению.
Steam — центральная комната бани. В ней проходит главный оздоровительный процесс и с нее же обычно начинают оформление интерьера. Обстановка в парной комнате отличается скромностью. Главный элемент меблировки — лавки. В примитивных вариантах их размещают по периметру парилки. В более сложных интерьерах выполняют многоярусные композиции, которые позволяют вольготно расположится целой семье. Центральное положение в парилке занимает печь, которую декорируют под стать общей отделке.
Prebanner можно назвать «комнатой ожидания». Здесь устанавливают пару лавок, шкаф или отдельно отгороженную раздевалку. Его главная задача — препятствование поступлению холодного воздуха в парилку. Он служит своеобразной промежуточной зоной между улицей и главной комнатой. В предбаннике люди, как правило, отдыхают в ожидании нагрева помещения или своей очереди на посещение. В более скромных вариантах с дефицитом пространства его объединяют с комнатой отдыха.
In the spacious baths are equipped with washing rooms, which include a pair of showers, "kadushki" with water and sometimes even swimming pools. In this room, people can cool and wash off sweat after the steam room, that is, complete the healing procedure. One shower is installed in small bathhouses. For her, usually allocate a small room, where they can fit the booth itself, a bench and a couple of hooks for things. In very tight buildings, the shower can be crammed into the waiting room. Its walls should be properly decorated so that the washable person can not be seen from the room.
This room is a living room. Only here the situation is remotely reminiscent of the usual room in the house. The main task of the designer is to create a cozy and comfortable atmosphere for a good rest. There must necessarily be places for sitting and lying, and with a soft coating, as opposed to hard steam rooms. Also in the bath-room, a table or bar is installed in addition to it. For a more comfortable stay in the room you can place a TV or think other ways of entertainment.
The tradition of going to the bathhouse, managed not only to pass the test of time, but also to adapt to modern realities. It was considered from ancient times that such a method of washing rejuvenates and cleanses the body. The result is usually noticeable after several regular visits to the bath. The interior and exterior of the building are given more and more attention, as it is no longer a "house in the garden", but a full-fledged element of landscape design of a private plot.