The relief is a special sculptural technique, when the composition is created only partially as a three-dimensional image on a plane. It is considered a separate subset of art. About where the terrain was first applied, the data was not preserved. It developed unevenly in Ancient Greece, India, Ancient Rome, Egypt and the countries of the Far East. One of the most famous examples of relief, which has survived to the present day in partially destroyed form, is the Pergamon altar of Zeus, now located on the museum island in Berlin.
Bas-relief in the interior of simple houses used to be rarely used. He could afford only very wealthy people who had real palaces at their disposal. More often the bas-relief was decorated with exteriors of houses in the Gothic style and the interior decoration of cathedrals and churches. In modern interiors, decorating with such sculptural compositions became available. The bas-relief can even be created independently. On the specifics of such a refined decor and the ways of making it with our own hands and talk further.
Pros and cons of the bas-relief
The bas-relief is made of wood, clay, alabaster, gypsum or stone. The latter method is very laborious and requires a high level of skill from the sculptor, since any error is not subject to correction. Of wood, bas-reliefs are created by carving, and clay is the most accessible material, which is suitable even for beginners. They were still engaged in shaping during the school years. Bas-relief products, in contrast to conventional sculptures, allow you to save a scale of 1: 1 and at the same time save on materials. After clay, for example, to sculpt a man in full growth will require almost 60-70% less than the creation of a similar full-fledged statue. Previously, any kinds of reliefs adorned the walls and ceilings and at the same time remained a part of them, that is, the composition was static and could not be moved. Now you can make a small bas-relief on a special canvas-stand and move it around the apartment if necessary.See also: Ways to decorate the wall above the sofa
Volumetric compositions invariably associate with classical styles. Indeed, this decor would be appropriate to look in the design of the same name, art nouveau, modern, baroque, rococo, empire. But here we are talking about traditional sculptures, with soft lines and a lot of small, ornate details. In the center of the composition, as a rule, people, deities, mythical creatures or complex ornaments appear. In modern style, a minimalist bas-relief will organically join:
- City panorama;
- Piece of wood;
- Volumetric "swirls" of the stirred fluid;
- Imitation of the "old" layer of finish or brick under the crumbling plaster.
The marine style is suitable for voluminous images of schools of fish, skates, seaweed, coral "fields" and fantastic panoramas of Triton's possessions. Of course, such compositions will not be possible for a beginner to make from the first time without errors. I'll have to train a lot and stuff my hand. In this, perhaps, the main drawback of the bas-relief. It is impossible to create beautiful without the big time spent on learning the skill of the sculptor. An exception will be only abstract reliefs, which are suitable for the style of the same name or minimalism. In contrast to the decorative painting, the bas-reliefs do not need additional color allocation. The backlight will perfectly emphasize each line. This type of decoration is popular for decorating arches, fireplaces, apertures and accent walls. With its help, it is possible to properly mask the unevenness of the surface, hide communication lines or distort the space in a room of irregular shape.
The bas-relief perfectly emphasizes the peculiarity of the ethnic style, regardless of which country the interior is "from."
Italian motifs emphasize grapevines and ornamental columns or a voluminous landscape from a false window. Japanese color will complement the 3D cherry branch, dotted with numerous flowers, and Chinese - a dragon with a snarling muzzle. In the house with elements traditional for India, thematic elephants on the walls and decorative sculptures of multi-armed Hindu deities harmoniously flow in.
Preparation for work
The bas-reliefs are made by hand. Of course, in the market of cheap decorative elements, you can buy already prepared stamping from gypsum, but it will not add to the design's uniqueness. Before you start working on your first full-length composition, you need to stuff your hand. It is most convenient to train on clay, gypsum or plaster. The materials are plastic and dry completely to correct errors. As a canvas will be used plywood with a low frame of wood. In rare cases, you can create a composition directly on the wall section. This option is suitable only for those sculptors who are firmly confident in their abilities. Right on the wall are also created large-scale panoramas, which to hang after production on individual canvases will simply be inconvenient. In advance, you also need to make typical forms for repeating elements to reduce the laboriousness of the process.
For example, every grapevine berry is much easier to make in molds. These elements are often made of gypsum, but the optimal material is alabaster. Let's talk about where to get the molds a little later. Instead of the stencil, ordinary food film will be used. First, it is put on a solid surface and draws a contour of individual elements. Then the stencil will be applied to the composition and transfer the same outlines to a still soft and pliable base. And now we will proceed to a short, general master class on the creation of a bas-relief for decorating the interior.See also: Types of decorative tiles for brick
Creating a bas-relief with their own hands
To make a bas-relief, first you need to prepare the foundation. In her role, use the "Marseilles wax" or simple plaster. With a spatula, the mixture is applied to a wall or plywood canvas. First they are leveled, and then they are given a relief if necessary (with sponge, foam, crumpled packages or pieces of cloth).
The next step is transferring the pattern from the film stencil to the prepared canvas. The picture is applied to a portion of the wall or plywood and the contour of the pattern is pressed into the still not completely solidified plaster. As a result, a primitive sketch is ready. Now you need to give it volume. To do this, mix the mixture for modeling. Optimum alabaster, as after full hardening, it is not inferior in strength to concrete. But the gypsum can split, crumbling and afraid of water. Dry alabaster is mixed with water immediately before work until uniform. Then begin to attach the volume to the printed pattern. This is done not at once in one fell swoop, but gradually, layer by layer. Deepening can be done by scraping part of the base or by applying additional "extra" layers to nearby objects. In certain places to the canvas are attached already pre-made in molds elements. If necessary, if the mass dries quickly and the work advances slowly, it must be moistened with water.
When forming the details, not only the tools, but also the fingers of the sculptor, go into the course. After the work is finished, it is given time to dry out. Then the composition is sanded with sandpaper, removing excess layers or leveling the roughness.
The problems of fixing the bas-relief to the base can be avoided if you sculpt it directly on the wall. In other cases, the composition is planted on liquid silicone or a special adhesive compound. If the relief was modular, then after fastening the place of joints carefully rub with putty. Do not recommend decorating such a decor "flimsy" walls of plasterboard. The backing material must be reliable and sturdy. Also carefully mask the place of the joints of the bas-relief and the wall. It is important to know. By the way, the modular composition is convenient for beginners. If you fail, any of the components of the terrain can be replaced without harm to it.
Making a mold for gypsum with your own hands
Forms or molds can be bought in stores, but their assortment is not as great as desired. In addition, the standard mold will no longer be a unique part of the bas-relief. To make a mold yourself, you must first make a sample element. The technology is the same for all materials, but consider one of the most popular recipes. It will require:
- PVA glue.
As for the proportions, then at 500 gr. fillings take 1 tbsp. a spoon of glue and 100 gr. water. The mass is kneaded with a gradual addition of liquid. The result should be a material similar in consistence to a steep test or a hard plasticine. The proportions may vary depending on the composition of the putty. From the mass mold details and elements. In the process, you need to pay special attention to flaws, which will be passed to the mold. Stucco gives time to freeze. 12 hours will be enough. Then, to make the mold, take:
- Set of self-tapping screws;
- Plywood pieces for box assembly;
- Liquid silicone.
From plywood with self-tapping screws create a prefabricated box without a top. A sample of the element is placed in it and filled with silicone. Then the composition is allowed to freeze. After that, the walls of the box are unscrewed, so as not to damage the mold, and a sample is caught out of its bowels. The silicone mold is ready for reusable use.
In gypsum products, there are often void spaces in the form of bubbles. They can modestly be inside the element or partially come out, thereby disrupting the integrity of the surface and spoiling the appearance. They can additionally be masked with a solution from which the main part of the bas-relief will be made.
If the mold is filled with gypsum, then to avoid sticking, the form is smeared with vegetable oil.
If the sculptor plans to create large parts of the bas-relief, then for additional stability it is better to use a wire. The frame will also simplify the molding process. Above, the bas-relief can be covered with a layer of primer or water-based paint. Alabaster such a coating will only give gloss, but for more fragile plaster or sensitive gypsum it will be an additional protection. During work it is better to use a professional set of stacks that will help create even the smallest details.
Choose a bas-relief not only to the style, but also to the character of the room. For the kitchen, a culinary theme is suitable: three-dimensional still lifes, floral compositions or panoramas of ancient cities. The bedroom will organically look stylish images of natural elements: bouquets, trees, animals. In the children's room with the help of relief, you can create a real fairy tale, and her sketches adorn the entire perimeter of the room.
Professional decorators recommend not using false walls, arches or furniture for zoning small studios. For these purposes, the bas-reliefs are perfect, which, combined with the color delineation, will give you no further words to understand where the functional areas are divided.
Bas-reliefs are not often used in design. It is much easier to paste the wall with photo wallpapers with the desired image. Many are frightened by the laboriousness of the process. If you have the patience, then you can find hidden talents and decorate with volume paintings every room of the apartment, making its design original and unique. To inspire, you can explore the magnificent sculptural patterns that adorn the Moscow Bolshoi Theater or the numerous houses in the streets of St. Petersburg.