Architecture is a science that unites two types of activities: planning and building construction. Architecture, as it was still called in the old days, can not be mastered without highly specialized knowledge, the luggage of which is available to every talented professional. The word "architecture" went through a long way of borrowing from other languages before it appeared in Russian. First it was adopted by the Poles, they borrowed the name in Latin, and to it it migrated from the Greek, where the "main, main builder" mattered. Architects manage to combine mathematics and art. Their work consists of several stages, the last of which is decorating. If we are talking about monumental buildings, then decorating their common man in the street is beyond his power.
- Materials for decoration
- Glass fiber reinforced concrete
- Polyurethane foam
- Polymer concrete
- Types of architectural decor elements
- Decorative columns
- Architectural profiles
- Decorative wood imitation
- Features of modern decor production
Materials for decoration
The facade is the "face" of the house, which greets guests. From its appearance, the first impression depends, which, as is known, is difficult to smooth over time. Think about what elements you will decorate the main wall of the house, it is necessary in advance. Usually the exterior solution is linked to the design of the landscape of the plot and the house area. For her, just like for the interior, style, finishing materials for cladding and decorative elements are chosen, which serve as the very cherry on the cake. And without it it's sweet and tasty, but it's much nicer with it.
Facing the facade surface and use as an additional layer of insulation. Finishing materials are classified into several popular types:
- Artificial brick, stone (polymer concrete);
- Concrete. Perhaps the most "strong" option;
- Decorative plaster;
- Metal and its derivatives in small elements of decoration;
- Styrofoam и пенополиуретан;
- Glass fiber reinforced concrete. Материал, который широко применяется в «большой» архитектуре;
- Gypsum. Fragile material, the products of which are usually kept at home. In order for the gypsum elements to withstand the "rainy season", special compositions are used.
Each material is used to translate specific ideas into stylistic solutions. For example, a tree is irreplaceable for a group of village styles and ethnics, and artificial brick or stone is used to create modern versions of facades.
Styrofoam в основном используют для внутренней отделки помещений и в целях утепления. Раньше материал применялся исключительно в качестве «чернового» слоя. В декорировании его заново «открыли» не так давно. Пользуются популярностью панели из пенопласта, на которые уже нанесен «рельефный» рисунок. Фактура материала достоверно имитирует кирпич и камень. Создать подобный рельеф можно и своими руками с помощью зажигалки (паяльника) и канцелярского ножа. Обычный пенопласт токсичен только при горении, поэтому работы по созданию декоративных панелей из него лучше перенести на улицу и защитить дыхательные пути респиратором. Вид материала с «шариками» в структуре, которым обкладывают хрупкие предметы в коробках, подходит только для утепления и внутренней отделки.Read also: Interior of a drawing room in a country house +75 photo
For the decoration of facades use expanded polystyrene. His safety for man is proved by research. Styrofoam can even come into contact with food without consequences. The word "foam" means any foamed plastic. This is not a special kind, but a collective concept that unites a mass of materials.
For the decoration of facades use foam with a special coating - a film that protects the fragile substrate from destruction and the impact of the environment. However, despite these measures, such a veneer can not be called durable. On average, its service life will be five years. Of undisputable advantages, note the additional thermal insulation provided by the material, and its weight, which does not add to the load on the structure.
The modern construction market offers not only foam panels for decoration, but also individual decorative elements: pilasters, stucco molding, rosettes.
Glass fiber reinforced concrete
Glass fiber reinforced concrete относят к сравнительно новым материалам. Он имеет средний вес: тяжелее полиуретана, но легче бетона, не впитывает влагу и не чувствителен к морозам. Панели обычно выполняются на заказ, а по срокам службы не уступают самому зданию. Материал является одной из разновидностей фибробетона. Армирующие добавки выполняют роль «каркаса», для них используют сталь, стекловолокна или синтетические материалы. В бетон (мелкозернистую матрицу) добавляют фибры, которые равномерно распределяют по всему пласту. Для декора используют отдельный тип. Другие виды стеклофибробетона применяются в целях гидроизоляции или являются составляющими сложных конструкций. Стоимость материала слегка кусается, так как цена «выше среднего», но долговечность покрытия быстро себя окупит.
Flexible polyurethane foam is used in furniture production. The material perfectly holds the shape and is used as a soft filler in sofas, beds, armchairs and orthopedic mattresses. Furniture using polyurethane foam is considered absolutely safe for humans. The material is made on the basis of non-toxic plastic. "Hard" types of polyurethane decorate the facades of houses. By weight, the material is similar to polystyrene foam, the design does not make heavier.
In building stores, you can buy polyurethane plates or resort to an exotic option: spraying. Usually, the liquid material is sprayed from the cans for warming. After the surface dries completely, a strong "crust" is formed, which firmly adheres to the substrate itself, without the aid of adhesives. There will be no seams on such a wall. The material is considered an innovative analogue of mineral wool and expanded clay.
Polymer concrete, как и пенопласт, является понятием собирательным. Им обозначают группу материалов, где цементное или силикатное связующее заменено на полимеры. Polymer concrete относительно тяжелый, поэтому добавит веса к фасадной стене. Многообразие его оттенков и фактур позволяет подобрать нужную поверхность, которая будет соответствовать стилистике. В бетон для декорирования обычно добавляют «сухой» цемент без воды либо смолу (полиэфиры).
According to the service life, the material favorably differs from cheaper analogues, since it can survive the building itself. No mechanical damage or extreme weather conditions are not terrible for him. In the price gradation, polymer concrete is located in the category of expensive materials.
Types of architectural decor elements
Decorative details for the exterior of the house can be classified into the following types:
- Columns. Separate elements, which in this case only imitate the "support" of the arch (usually the porch);
- Pilasters. Представляют собой колонны «утопленные» в фасад здания наполовину;
- Cornices and moldings. Interstorey and socle elements;
- Shtapiki for doors and windows;
- Rusts. Used for decorating corners and additional protection against their destruction;
- Fronts and panels. Decorate the roof and walls under the window apertures;
- Balustrades. Special decorative "railing", consisting of graceful columns;
- Brackets. Simulate the "support" of individual overall dimensions.
This list is not exhaustive. It includes a dozen more smaller elements, which are used less often.
Do not forget about the lighting of the facade (lights and light bulbs) and windows. The latter is important not only to decorate the outside, but also not to blunder inside. Beautiful curtains in the bedroom or neat kitchen blinds will also "peek out" to the street and unwittingly become part of the exterior of the house.
Ancient architects created unique designs with an ideal balance, the "roof" of which was kept on powerful columns. These structures have stood for centuries and many did not succumb to destruction and survived to the present day. Naturally, ideas using columns are widely used in decorating modern facades of country houses. The element is usually not used as a support for the roof, but performs only the role of decoration. Columns are appropriate in interiors. They are made of various materials: MDF, timber, glass fiber reinforced concrete, polymer concrete.
Do not be mistaken that the pillars are destiny of an exclusively antique style. They also differ in design and can organically fit into modern design. The column consists of base, trunk and capitals. All three parts can be made from different materials. The trunk is usually smooth, and the relief and unusual texture are characteristic of the other two parts.
In rare cases, columns are saved by buildings that are destroyed or erected with the assumption of gross but not critical architectural errors. Elements combine a decorative function and play the role of additional support.
Pilasters появились позже колонн, как деталь их имитирующая. Они по всей длине крепятся к стене и иногда также могут «поддерживать» конструкцию. Эту декорацию используют как в экстерьере, так и в интерьере домов. Горизонтальное сечение деталей может быть прямоугольным, полукруглым (как у колонн) или сложных форм. В конструкцию пилястры тоже входит база, капитель и ствол. Без этого элемента не обходится декорирование фасада в стиле арт деко, рококо, барокко, классика и этника.
Architectural profiles представляют собой группу, объединяющую все виды декоративных элементов, используемых для украшения фасадов зданий. Сюда относят как крупные элементы: арки, балюстрады, фронтоны, карнизы, русты. Так и детали «помельче»: замковые камни, розетты, фризы, филенки и штапики. Рустами декорируют углы зданий (обычно в форме плиток), фронтонами — «боковушки» крыши между скатами.
Arches adorn the doorways and windows, balustrades "fence" porches and terraces. Cornices "polish" the stylistic picture of the exterior. Castle stones are used on the tops of arched vaults, and the panels are "niches-deceptions" in the wall. Shtapiki decorate the place of joints of glass and window frame materials or doors. Friezes are complex relief compositions. They resemble voluminous pictures. Rosettes are round in shape and look like small friezes.
Decorative wood imitation
Wooden decor harmoniously looks in the village and ethnic styles. Usually, the elements mimic the technique of carving, without which no Russian hut previously did. "Solid" wall covering is made of concrete, composite or artificial wood, painted in characteristic colors with the repetition of a special texture of the sample. Also imitation of beams, which are decorated with houses in Western countries, is actual.
Features of modern decor production
The production of modern decor is more focused on reducing the cost of production. These are the realities of life: the more accessible the element, the more often it is bought. Naturally, materials try to make it safe for humans, easy and convenient to install. To decorate the modern facade of the house, you do not have to grind the stone yourself, stucco, knead the base, or pay a lot of money to the master who will do it manually. Details are formed on special machines by thermo cutting. "Smart", high-tech equipment observes accuracy up to millimeters. Several protective layers are applied to the finished part, which will provide it with "endurance" and immunity to rain, wind, sunlight, mechanical damage, frost and heat.Read also: Interior design of the house +150 photo
The assortment of finished products is rich and allows you to choose inexpensive options that will fulfill the main function: decorate the exterior. Maybe they will not last very long, but, as they say, the miser pays twice, so be ready for the obligatory replacement of the decor. More expensive materials are characterized by high strength and durability.
The design of the facade begins with the drawing. On a crude outline with real dimensions mark the approximate arrangement of decorative elements and their groups. Then the exterior picture is grinded and a layout is made or a more precise and detailed drawing. Rough mistakes will be knocked out of the design composition with a visual evaluation of the project, so they are easily eliminated. Further work is conventionally divided into three stages:
- Cutting elements;
- Their attachment to the surface;
At the preparatory stage on the facade of the house mark the location of decorative details using a tape measure and a level. In parallel with this, the elements themselves, if necessary, are cut and adjusted to the required dimensions. The surface must also be prepared. From it remove the old layers of paint, cleaned of dirt and shpatlyuyut. All cracks should be smeared, and defects and irregularities - smoothed. Then the decorative elements are applied to the locations of the future location and are adjusted to each other, if a docking is planned or errors in the measurements were made. Attach the jewelry with glue.
Manufacturers usually recommend in the instructions for the product exactly the composition that is most effective. To increase the "coupling" between the surfaces use reinforcing mesh. The glue is applied to the back side of the element with a notched trowel and pressed against the wall. If the item is large, then use additional support. Joints between the decor and windows or doors must be treated with a sealant.
After installation, the décor must be painted. First it is grounded, and the wall around the location of the element is sealed with a paint tape. On the relief or small parts paint is applied with a brush, and on large surfaces - with a roller. Traditionally, the elements are covered with two layers of matter. If the paint is in contact with the foam, it should not contain solvents. They just "melt" the decor. For testing, you can try to apply the composition to a small piece.
Find a "reference point" in the history, when people first began to use the decor for exterior decoration of buildings, it is impossible. In many architectural monuments and their ruins, which have survived to this day, the remains of details remained, which served as decoration. Initially, ceramic tiles with a glazed protective coating were used for these purposes. By the way, it was produced manually for the cladding of temple complexes and public buildings.
Only after the establishment of less labor-intensive production, lowering the cost, tiles became available for the homes of mere mortals. The material was manufactured so qualitatively that it managed to pass the test of time and to reach our days unharmed. Then the elements became more and more complicated: lower cornices, columns, stucco molding, friezes appeared, which became a special form of sculpture. Gothic castles were decorated with gargoyles and fantastic birds (harpies), which sat on decorative pedestals at the entrance doors. These days, such a facade decoration of the country house will look too pompous and pretentious. People switched to cheaper and simpler materials, which embody, albeit not luxurious, but rather refined details.