The arrangement of private home ownership includes the decoration of the interior of a dwelling, a site around it. The area of the backyard is brought into a proper appearance. Organize an easy-to-use, aesthetically attractive near-home space possible on small pieces of land. A key role is played by the correct approach to the creation of a project for the upgrading of the territory. The first step is to gather information on an issue of interest, prioritization, preliminary planning.
Where to begin
Before the development of the document that determines the further course of work on the improvement of the site - the landscape plan, it is necessary to clearly define the target use of the territory. The needs of the family can be varied, the range of the main points from which the landscape design of the household plot begins to be built has long been outlined:
- The territory is used all year round or seasonal;
- How many people are constantly on the site, whether it will be used to conduct large-scale events;
- Is it planned to engage in horticulture, planting vegetables;
- Is it possible to walk pets, open-air cages for outdoor maintenance?
- Architectural style of the house is taken into account;
- Will an artificial reservoir be designed.
This is an incomplete list of preliminary issues for agreement, such nuances can be dozens.
The next stage will be the development of project documentation directly based on pre-collected information of a technical nature:
- Chemical composition of soils;
- The degree of illumination of the site, the direction of the winds;
- Ground water level;
- The degree of bias, on this depends where the bulk of moisture will accumulate;
- Features of existing buildings, stylistics should be the same for all architectural forms;
- The need to develop special zones: a children's playground, parking, etc .;
- What kind of plant diversity is desirable to plant.
The final result of the efforts is a plan with a detailed scheme of structures, communications, paths, green plantings put on it.
If there is a possibility, then it is better to develop the project in the cold season. Many plants require an early spring landing, by the end of February - early March it is better to have a ready-made work plan in hand.
Correctly plan the territory
Having defined the presence of the main functional areas of the infield area, the assortment of planted plants is worth assessing the resulting design, not only from a practical point of view, aesthetics play a leading role:
- Much does not mean good. Do not clutter the site with a huge number of variegated flower beds, motley bushes, trees. It does not bring a sense of coziness, the territory will look neglected;
- Stylistics of the whole site should be unified, there should not be a sense that the garden is broken up into incomprehensible disjointed flaps;
- Fill the territory evenly. The balance rule should work - all parts of the plot are evenly planted;
- Adhere to the right scale - the plants should be proportionate to the structures.
Avoid monophonic design, bright color spots in the design will add life to your site.
Fences in the garden area can be divided into two types: internal fencing, used more for decoration; external fencing - performing defensive, demarcating functions. The second kind is also called just a fence. External fences are made of natural material, wood, brick, stone, cast concrete structures. The main requirement for external fences is a sufficient height to prevent unauthorized access to the site. For suburban areas there is a height restriction - no more than two meters. If a part of the fence that goes to the road can be made of any material, then the fence adjacent to the neighboring sections should be transparent so as not to obscure the adjacent territory. For internal fencing is characterized by a small height, attractive appearance due to the decorative material. Widely used hedges, from curbs they are distinguished by a large height, use for the formation of perennial shrubs, whereas curbs can be planted annually.
Zoning of the site
Separation of the personal plot into parts that carry a separate functional purpose is advisable from the point of view of the effective use of the area. The functional areas for most sites are the same. In front of the site there is a front entrance zone, in the form of a place for a recreation area. For giving is characterized by the allocation of a place for beds, fruit trees - garden and garden area, from prying eyes hide the economic zone. Presence of children involves the creation of a game zone.
Entrance or front zone of the site is located on a small area - about 6% of the entire territory, its functionality is small: to ensure a comfortable arrival of transport, entrance to the site. But, this is the first thing your guests will see. The most important thing that should be paid attention is the arrangement of a convenient approach to the house, a convenient parking place for the car. The passage to the residential house is wide - about two meters. Around the parking lot, trees should not be planted, this can damage the car.
The planning of the parade zone is carried out taking into account the slope of the site, the rainwater run-off system is being designed. In the parking lot, the approach to the house should not form puddles.
It does not make sense to decorate the area with a lawn, high patency will turn it into unattractive shreds of grass. It is better to stop on a tiled, brick paving, pouring concrete. For decorative elements, places in this zone may not be enough, they are necessarily placed along the line of the outer fence. From the outside of the site, in the presence of a band of full-grown soil, you can plant a hedge, decorate the entrance to the house with the help of flowering annuals. To hide the sharp line of the fence helps to plant decorative grapes, climbing varieties of roses.See also: Styles of landscape design and their characteristic features
Rest area and barbecue
The recreation area occupies a somewhat larger area of about 15% of the entire site. Beautify it with the possibility of cooking food in the street, it is possible to arrange a summer kitchen, a place to receive guests. There is also a stationary, mobile BBQ, grill, barbecue. It is possible to lay out a street oven from refractory bricks. If the area allows you to equip all kinds of arbours, places for relaxation, rest for guests. To comfortably spend time in the recreation area, with its improvement, the following points are taken into account:
- The zone is located far from prying eyes, it is advisable to place it behind the house. This will ensure a comfortable stay.
- For the convenience of servicing the members of the guests, a part of the zone should be in the immediate vicinity of the residential building.
- It is also important that from the recreation area a view of the decorative plantations, water reservoirs, the territory of the children's playground could be seen.
For the improvement of the orchard and garden area, the largest amount of a hundred acres of land is allocated, about 2/3 of a plot. The garden should be lighted, however, for the tall trees with a large branchy crown, the northern part is more suitable. From the recreation area, homeownership garden is better to fence near a number of fruit trees, with this role perfectly hand dwarf apple and cherry blossoms, they add picturesqueness to the entire garden. For convenience, the garden is divided into several separate beds with the help of cobbled paths, so it is more convenient to take care of the shoots. Under the modular beds a drip irrigation system is supplied. It is possible to outline vegetable plantings from a hedge formed from fruiting shrubs: gooseberries, currants.
The economic zone
The economic zone загородного дома располагается в непосредственной близости от огорода, включает в себя помещение для хранения хозяйственного инвентаря, мастерские, подсобки. Если позволяет площадь тут же возводят капитальный гараж. Несомненным преимуществом будет наличие на даче бани или сауны. В таком случае помещение парной должно иметь прямые подходные пути к дому. Если дачный дом небольшой, не располагает внутренними удобствами, то в хозяйственной зоне размещают уличный туалет, летний душ. Сооружения хозяйственного назначения не должны портить общую эстетику, поэтому на небольших площадях их скрывают с помощью вьющихся декоративных растений, на большой территории возможно использование более массивных внутренних оград.
Children's playground does not have to be impressive, for comfortable placement of two or three children it is enough for about 10 square meters. meters. This area can successfully fit in a small sandbox, swings, uncomplicated sports and gaming equipment. Coverage of the zone is provided exceptionally soft to avoid injury during mobile games.
Security rules require that the play area is in the visual control zone from all sides of the infield.
Game Zone разбивается в сухом, солнечном месте. Обязательно оборудуются притененные участки, позволяющие скрыться от жары.
The main functional purpose of the tracks is facilitating the movement between the main zones. In addition, they play a unifying role in the entire landscape composition. Material for making garden paths is diverse:
- Expensive option - a natural stone laid out on a previously primed with concrete surface. Has high wear resistance, aesthetic appeal;
- Paths made of synthetic stones are more budgetary. Such stones are distinguished by a variety of shapes, color solutions;
- Brick tracks are relatively expensive, their re-laying does not require special skills. Bricks look attractive, but quickly destroyed under the influence of the environment;
- A great popularity is used for paths made of paving slabs. They are affordable, durable. The choice of colors, shapes of tiles on the market is great. To lay this path itself is not difficult: on the marked direction of the path a layer of sand pours out, the surface is leveled. Then the tile is laid out in the desired way, the grip with the soil is increased by compacting the tiles with a special rubber hammer;
- The implementation of garden paths is possible from any loose material: gravel, sand, gravel. However, they are short-lived, loose tracks are washed away with water.
Works on the installation of lighting start one of the first, before the beginning of the basic works on design. This is due to the need to lay trenches, ditches, digging pits all over the site.
Standard options for designing a scheme for lighting a homestead farm can be presented in the form of a table, which lists the lighting points:
|Entrance to the house, wicket door, garage gate||Economy вариант + дорожка к дому, зона отдыха, крупные элементы ландшафта (альпийские горки, водоемы)||Optimal + все дорожки участка, углы всех сооружений, входные двери в служебные помещения|
Light sources are fixed on the buildings themselves, specially dug up pillars, trunks of trees at an altitude of about 2.5 m, then the light will not dazzle people, will not interfere with the movement around the site. The distance between the lanterns depends on the power of the lamps, optimally - about 15 m.
Separately it is necessary to designate the role of marking lamps. They are mounted along tracks, dangerous areas, various obstacles almost at ground level. In the suburban areas it is advisable to feed such signal light points not from the network, but from the storage batteries.
Registration of a personal plot with own hands
Creating a flower bed on the site
Flowerbeds are broken away from trees, many flowers do not tolerate shading. It is necessary to avoid places with drafts, especially if you plant heat-loving, moody flowers. The composition will look harmonious if the plants are planted taking into account the size, stem height, timing and periodicity of flowering. Do not neglect the methods of color: the colors should be combined, an excessively bright composition should be diluted with a white color. Any flowerbed perfectly complement the spikelets, bushes. A beginner grower does not need to get involved in the complicated forms of flower beds. Landscape designers advise first to fill the hand on the classic - a flower bed with a dominant in the center - the largest plant around which a composition of auxiliary colors is formed.Read also: Decorative bridge for the garden +50 photo
For amateur gardeners without assistance, it's easiest to drop a monocle. On the plot the plot of any, most intricate form is delineated. It remains to sow it with annuals or perennials. Such beds perfectly fit into any landscape style.
An uncomplicated version of the flowerbed is the mixboarder - flowers, grasses planted in the form of strips. Such beds are edging larger flower beds, lawns, decorative forms of the site. For planting it is possible to use a vegetative mix, the main requirement - small flowers are planted closer to the paths, on the rear edge - large plants. Try to ensure that the flowering time of all plants in the mixbinder coincides. Mixborders can be both annual and perennial. In the latter case, once in several years they will need to be thinned, some plants will be separated.
Domestic gardeners prefer to sow lawn grasses on their own, although there is always an opportunity to buy a lawn in rolls. Depending on the composition of the seeds, the intended purpose of the lawn are divided into:
- Low-grown lawns from one variety of grasses, withstand intensive load - sports; Decorative lawns, it is impossible to walk on them, they are planted from elite varieties of grasses, they are distinguished by their bright color - parterre;
- Meadow lawns - consisting of self-reproducing annuals, primroses, such lawns have a natural appearance, resemble an ordinary lawn. This includes the Moorish lawn, it also consists of a set of meadow grasses, but requires periodic mowing - twice a year;
- Popular, unpretentious - an ordinary lawn. Consists of grasses adapted to local climatic conditions, resistant to trampling.
Before planting a lawn, the soil is cleared of weeds, the area is leveled. If necessary, the fertile soil layer is removed, the drainage is filled, the soil is returned to the place. For an arid climate, this is not necessary. Above the main soil is laid a sifted mixture of peat, compost, sand with a thickness of ten centimeter layer. Then the layer is rammed with a special roller, left alone for two weeks, thus revealing the remaining weeds. When the weeds grow, it is removed again, the area under the lawn is finally leveled and re-tamped. One day before sowing the land is watered, on the day of sowing, loosening is carried out by rakes, seeds are sown according to the instructions.
Watering the lawn in the first year should be done regularly using a spray system. Be prepared for some heterogeneity of the grass cover in the first growth season, remove the germinating weeds. In the second year, the lawn will acquire a proper appearance, it will need to be watered 1-2 times a month. Periodically it will be necessary to conduct loosening of the turf with the help of a studded roller.
The artificial reservoirs used for swimming must strictly comply with safety standards, the water in them must be constantly filtered, the pool design will have to be periodically cleaned. Decorative ponds require the creation of an ecosystem in which water will not cloud, stagnate, overgrow with unwanted plants.
A good place to stay is a zone where it's sunny only half a day. If the pond is in the sun all day, the water in it will evaporate, plants and fish will feel uncomfortable in the conditions of high temperature.
Stationary fountains serve as a separate element of landscape design. They can be impressive sizes, but more often in cramped conditions stop on small granite, ceramic bowls with intricate decor. Such architectural forms are located in the center of the garden, so that it can be seen from any point.
На дно искусственных прудов устанавливают погружные фонтаны, тогда струи пробиваются сквозь толщу воды: вертикально, горизонтально, пузырьками, воронкой, каскадом. Очень эффектно выглядит «вертушка» — струи воды движутся по спиралевидной траектории. Для усиления эффекта фонтаны дополняют музыкальным сопровождением, световыми эффектами. Fountains с большой мощностью струи монтируются вдали от сада, жилых построек, чтобы влага не попадала на стены.
To build a waterfall start from the bottom-up, with the first layer should be flat. Stop as a rule at a height of 1.5 m., Too high a height of the construction makes it difficult for the water pump to work. It fits on the bottom of the reservoir, the stronger the flow, the more powerful the water supply equipment will need, it will be filtered before the intake from the reservoir. Calm flow of water provides use in the construction of stones with a depression in the center, in them water accumulates gradually, slowly draining down. A stormy foam stream is created by the flow of water between smooth cobblestones under high pressure. If the edges of the stones are jagged, the water will flow in scattered streams. The final decoration of the waterfall is done by laying around decorative stones. In the evening, the waterfall is illuminated with spotlight.
The pond dug is excavated in the penumbra zone, the trees should be kept as far as possible, there is a risk of irreversible damage to the roots. After the outlines are outlined, they start digging. Deepening in the earth is made stepwise, at different levels are planted deep-water, shallow representatives of the flora. At the bottom of the pit, a channel is being dug out for the laying of electrical networks, which ensure the operation of the filter, the submerged fountain. After the installation of electrical equipment proceed to sealing with a film, cast from acrylic finished forms. The edges of the pond are decorated with stones hiding the edges of the insulating material. After filling the pond with water, proceed to planting the plants. If you plan to start fish, the pond is made deep - at least 1 m., The water in winter should not freeze completely. For a successful wintering, the living inhabitants of the pond need space.See also: English style in landscape design
The rock garden as part of a mountain landscape
The main task of the Alpine hill is to recreate the unique mountain landscape of the Alps. This is achieved through the creation of a landscape form, consisting of rock with the inclusion of vegetation, characteristic of the Alpine landscapes. The hill is built taking into account the south-west orientation in the center, on the edge of the lawn. Because the composition is complex in structure, a sketch is pre-created.
The alpinarium is filled with plants growing on the slopes of the Alpine mountains. The first planted bushes, then grass, complete the image of plants growing near the soil cover itself. Gorka should please with its beauty and in the cold season, primroses are combined with coniferous, evergreen shrubs. In the center of the rock garden are often planted stunted trees with wicker branches. Care for the rock garden is simple - moisten the soil should be rare, occasionally remove the dead parts of plants, weeds. Alpine hills like snowy winters, the cover does not allow plants to freeze.
Landscape design and its styles
English, он же — природный, ландшафтный стиль предполагает небрежную естественность во всем. Витиеватые тропки, луговые травы, слегка заросшие водоемы – все должно выглядеть так, словно не подвергаются никакому специальному уходу. Конечно, это не соответствует действительности. Исключение из общей концепции газоны – аккуратные газоны с лавочками вдоль дорожек типичны для Англии. Такой стиль хорошо вписывается в наши климатические условия, участки будут гармонично смотреться и летом, и зимой. Для оформления в английском стиле практически обязательным становиться наличие укромных, затененных уголков, поросших плющом беседок, пруда с кувшинками, камышом. Нужно помнить, полностью такую стилистику возможно воссоздать лишь на относительно большой площади. На четырех сотках сделать это не удастся.
Mediterranean stylistics is characterized by the extensive use of marble, pebbles, stones in decor. The nature of the appearance of the style presupposes the presence of steps, retaining structures, stairs, terraces. Garden plantings alternate with artificially created decorative elements. In a cold climate, the idea of a Mediterranean garden is difficult to realize, except in winter gardens. For the Mediterranean style is characterized by an abundance of citrus, palm trees, olives, pistachios. From this garden came to us the topiary - artfully trimmed shrubs in the form of intricate figures. Furniture in such a garden is light and comfortable, the main element of the decor are copies of antique statues, amphorae, pseudo-vintage vases. Such ceramics are often covered with ivy. Fountains will not be superfluous, but they should not be too bulky, compact marble bowls suffice.
Все под линейку – основная идея французского стиля. Четкие линии, исключительно правильные формы, идеально ровные дорожки. Вся композиция должна быть отцентрирована вокруг небольшого пруда, фонтана – обязательно правильной геометрической формы. На большой площади участка высаживают газон, огороженный густой изгородью – боскет. Интересным элементом бывает лабиринт из густо посаженных деревьев, которым придают четкую форму пирамиды, шара, куба. Стены живой головоломки могут иметь скрытые ниши со скамейками, словно вы попали в сады Версаля. Fountains для французской стилистики характерны безупречно правильной формы, но обязательно массивные с эффектным выбросом струй воды. Дорожки отсыпаются мелким гравием, очерчиваются с помощью аккуратных растительных бордюров. В узоре клумб нет случайных пятен, они либо просты до безобразия, либо представляют собой замысловатый, но четкий узор.
Refined transitions, smoothness, slowness in everything, delicate combinations characterize the oriental style. Trees are dwarfish, dwarf shrubs interspersed with small ponds. The landscape is designed to relieve tension, unhurried reflection on the essence of being. Colors are chosen not striking, softening conditions. The key to everything are stones - they should look like they've been lying in one place for thousands of years. Their forms are round, covered with moss. They serve as a reminder of the fleetingness of our life in comparison with eternity. Narrow alleys, curved bridges push to long unhurried walks. Everything in the eastern garden is permeated with philosophy, especially trifles in the form of flashlights, vases. The symbol of prosperity is the carp in the garden pond, they can perfectly transfer the harsh winter. A standard arbor replaces the house for tea ceremonies.
Close to us is the Russian style. Decoration of the site is rustic, with a fantastic tint. Plantations are based on practicality - all kinds of fruit trees, beds, consisting of medicinal herbs. For estates built in the Russian style is characterized by the presence of a bath, a real, at worst, decorative well. Wooden pavilions, wicker fences, decorated with clay pots for antiquity, paths from wooden circles are indispensable attributes of stylistics. Children will enjoy carved fairy-tale characters, randomly arranged around the site. To strengthen the atmosphere will help a collection of antique household items. The outer boundaries of the site are often planted with white-birch birches. To implement the idea of design of the site in the Russian style is not needed much - remember the grandmother's house in the village, embody the warm childhood memories in life, somewhat modernizing them.
The desire for harmony lies in each of us. Having become the owner of even a small piece of land, we strive to make it a nice place for rest, avoiding daily fuss. Long gone are the times when several hundred at the dacha served as the main source of food, this place became the source of the restoration of mental strength. It's enough to see the perfect picture in your head, do not be afraid to realize your dream in life. Do the work boldly, embody the insane ideas, do not stop halfway. Perhaps your creativity will attract something new in the science of landscape design, it will become a new art trend to make the world around beautiful.