The biggest problem for car owners is buying or building and equipping the garage. This issue is most acute in megacities, where prices for square meters bite, and I do not want to keep my "swallow" on the street in the rain and snow. For motorists, there are only a few options:
- Design project
- Finishing the floor
- Wall decoration
- Finishing the ceiling
- Storage systems
- Gates and doors
By type of accommodation, garages are conventionally divided into three categories:
- Built-in house. Such a garage is included in the project of residential construction and is being built simultaneously with it. Most often under the premise are given a basement or a basement. Usually has two outputs: from the street and from the residential part of the house. The practice is widely used by the owners of country apartments.
- Extension. It is post facto after the construction of the house. The option is optimal in cases where the site can not boast of a large area, and to the gate from the residential building "nothing at all".
- Separately standing garage. It is a detached building, which is erected most often at the gate and has a direct exit to the street.
Also, the structures are classified according to the material of execution:
- Capital. As a rule, a building made of bricks is erected. It carries out lighting and heating. Such a garage will last for several decades.
- Temporary. Usually for construction use "improvised" materials: wood, corrugated board, metal. Temporary construction can be as a full garage with walls, and an open parking space under a canopy. Usually such light structures are erected while the owners of the site are busy building a house. The calculation is that the garage will last a couple of years, and after, when it becomes possible, it will be replaced by a capital construction. If you do everything qualitatively, then the temporary becomes permanent.
- Combined. Construction can take only a couple of days. Pre-buy a ready-made metal frame, which is installed on the foundation foundation. Outside, the structure is sheathed with profiled sheeting, siding or block house.
- Wood. Gradually losing its position, not withstanding the competition of brick and foam concrete. With proper processing, it will not yield to them for durability.
- Metal. The most common budget option. "Ranks" of such buildings are decorated with garage complexes in the cities.
- Foam concrete. Virtually devoid of shortcomings. The garage keeps the heat well, and the material is refractory.
In the circles of connoisseurs of beauty goes the saying "the theater begins with a hanger". By analogy, we can say that the motorist's house originates in the garage. The preparation of a design project is usually carried out in parallel with the development of a plan for future construction. You can do it yourself or get ideas already prepared from the Internet or specialized magazines. If you have a good taste, then the preference is better given to the first option. Not only will the process be fascinating, but also the result will turn out to be original in its uniqueness.
In the process of preparation, a question may arise: is it necessary to create a design project of such a construction or "will itself" subsequently. Definitely necessary. If you decorate the decoration after the fact, you have to adjust to what is already built. Preparing the project ahead of time will allow changing the framework for the implementation of interesting ideas, if initially they did not fit into them, that is, you can reconsider the entire garage project at the planning stage.
Planning of the garage begins with the choice of a place for its location and calculation of dimensions. With a site for construction, everything is quite simple, it is chosen on the principle of "convenient entry". The minimum dimensions of the room are regulated by mandatory regulations: 5 m in length and 2.3 m in width for one "car parking" for a car of the middle class. In addition, when creating a plan, it is necessary to take into account the requirements for the equipment protection zone: another 0.5 m from each side. These calculations provide only the correct operation of the garage for the main purpose, and in fact it is still necessary to take into account the area where the storage systems will be located. Here we are guided by the expected number of tools and special installations: grinders, vise, jacks, spare parts, bench workbench. On a blank sheet of paper, you need to visualize the future location of each part, sketch conditional storage systems: shelves and cabinets. This technique will help you plan the garage correctly.
Any styles that are used in the design of living rooms, and suitable for the arrangement of the garage, but note the "golden" three, organically flowing into this room. Well it looks loft, which combines an "industrial" finish with expensive, status elements of the interior. Brick walls - a visiting card of the "combed" industrial in this room look harmonious. Particular attention in the loft is given to lighting: it should be a lot to emphasize the combination of luxury and negligence. For the garage in the Art Nouveau style, smooth surfaces, an abundance of "polished" metal, wood in decor and simplicity in lines are characteristic. The technical filling of the room turns into interior accessories. In American country, a tree is used, aged metal and typical checkered textiles in the Yankees in detail. A good solution is the arrangement of a common room combined with a garage. This practice is found in Western countries, when in this room are installed billiard tables, mini-bars or a full-fledged place to sleep. The owner of the house will be able to engage in long repairs, and, if necessary, lie down or unwind.
Finishing the floor
The role of the rough floor in any garage is concrete. Some people leave this coating without finishing. Actually a similar solution for temporary buildings or "cold" structures. In other situations, the floor covering is made of the following materials:
- Paint. A budgetary option that will only facilitate the cleaning of the premises, but will not strengthen its base.
- Facing with tiles (paving or ceramic).
- Wooden floor covering.
- Facing PVC or rubber plates. The material refers to inexpensive, but inferior to the performance characteristics of wood and tile.
- Underground floor. Used in expensive projects. The high cost of pouring the coating is due to its strength and durability. The material will strengthen the foundation of the building.
Please note that special requirements are imposed on the floor in the garage. It must be resistant to weight loads. Separate attention should be paid to topping mixtures. They include metal chips, particles of quartz, corundum and mineral additives. Pouring the topping mixture will strengthen the floor surface and make it super-strong. The coating can act as a second layer of the substrate for decorative finishing or become the main material that does not require additional coating.
If you decide to leave the "bare" concrete, then it should be sanded. Polished coating will get a more "decent" look and clean it will be easier.
The material for wall finishing in the garage should be resistant to mechanical damage, chemical attack, sudden changes in humidity and fire. Among the popular ways of facing are:
- Concrete screed. A simple and economical option. The material fits well on a brick or concrete base. Preliminary, the walls are plastered.
- Ceramic tile. It has a pleasant aesthetic appearance and is suitable for both heated garages and for "cold" rooms. The material will last for a long time and with dignity will stand the test by any whims of a special microclimate.
- Drywall. In the garages, the frame method of attachment is used. When planning, take into account this nuance, since for the construction of the construction will require extra centimeters. Drywall is distinguished by democratic prices and is ideal for "cold" buildings. Gypsum, which is part of its composition, has a specific feature: it absorbs moisture with its excess and releases it into the atmosphere in "dry" periods.
- Lining of PVC or wood. Plastic refers to cheap materials, will survive any changes in temperature and moisture levels, but it will easily break at a strong impact. In this case, a wooden board is preferable. It will last a long time if it passes through the process of impregnation with special compositions that prevent decay.
- OSB. The material is a sheet of compacted coarse chips. OSB is lightweight, which makes the installation easier, but it has a high flammability rating. Performs both in the role of the main coating, and the layer for decorative decoration.
- Artificial and natural stone, brick. Natural materials are expensive, which pays off the durability of the finish. Simulation is not always suitable for "cold" garages.
Any of the above materials has its drawbacks and advantages. "Poverty" color gamut of some coatings can easily be corrected by using a layer of paint the right shade.
Finishing the ceiling
The ceiling should have a high threshold of resistance to contamination, temperature and humidity fluctuations, as well as to the effects of various kinds of chemistry. Among the common ways of facing the surface are:
- "Wet" plaster. A cheap option, which is later covered with decorative material.
- PVC panels. Easy to clean, but even a quality coating will last only a couple of years.
- Drywall. Simply mounted, has a neat appearance and allows subsequent painting.
- OSB. A natural, non-toxic material that is characterized by a relatively low cost.
Regardless of the type of coating, special attention is paid to the installation of fastening systems. The quality of this work will depend on the life of the structure.
Правильная организация систем хранения обуславливает удобство работы в гараже. Если все лежит на своих местах и не мешается в проходах, то захламление пространства будет предотвращено, а любой предмет легко найдется. Storage systems классифицируют на два типа:
Open racks and hinged shelves are recommended for use under basic necessities. Things that get less often are hidden in deep boxes. Closed lockers help to protect fragile or sensitive to the effects of garage microclimate tools and parts. Among the materials from which the storage sites are created, metal and wood are out of competition.Read also: Chic interior - how to create and design
Осветительные приборы должны иметь высокую степень защиты от влаги. Лампочки, плафоны и включатели выполняются из специальных материалов, а среди характеристик обращают внимание на их герметичность. Lighting в гараже хорошо прорабатывают на двух уровнях: общем и локальном. Особое внимание уделяют второму типу, так как в гараж обычно не проникает естественный свет. Локальное освещение в свою очередь подразделяют на нижнее, среднее и верхнее. Первое используется при ремонте машины. Локальные осветительные приборы среднего уровня необходимо устанавливать на стене прямо над рабочей зоной таким образом, чтобы соседние предметы не отбрасывали на нее тени. К верхней точечной подсветке прибегают в редких случаях, ведь с этой задачей неплохо справляется центральный потолочный плафон с лампой. Если в гараже оборудована смотровая яма, то устанавливать в ней стационарные светильники запрещается требованиями безопасности. Придется пользоваться специальными лампами и переноской.
In the garage, ventilation is a must. It is divided into two types:
- Mechanical. It is divided into modular and monoblock types.
To work naturally, it is necessary to artificially create a temperature difference between the room and the street. If the garage is warmer, then the light air will freely flow out. Between the ventilation inlet and outlet there should be a vertical distance of at least 3 meters. Only then the air in the system will constantly circulate. It also takes into account the location of the vent input and outlet relative to the leeward side. It will be easier for air to enter the room if its masses on the street naturally move in the same direction. A similar situation develops with the ventilation outlet: it is placed on the side of the opposite leeward. Mechanical devices are sold in ready-made form, only the installation is required from the owner. This ventilation independently manages the air injection. That the efficiency of the work does not fall, you will periodically need to clean the filtering grids.
Gates and doors
Doors in the garage are installed individually or complete with a gate. The latter option is suitable for tight spaces where there is simply nowhere to do any additional opening. There are the following gate opening systems:
- Sweeps. The most primitive option, which requires additional space in the street to open the doors;
- The mechanism is lifting and turning. Provides a high level of sealing the room and perfectly preserves the heat. The solid leaf of the gate rises to the ceiling and assumes a horizontal position;
- Section type. The gates consist of separate panels, which are lifted by a special mechanism. It is convenient in cases when the platform in front of the garage does not allow opening the doors to the street;
- Sliding type. Divergence of the wings is provided by a cantilever, suspension or monorail mechanism. It is allowed to cut the door;
- Rolettes. This type of closing of the leaflets can be seen on the shop windows after the end of the working day. Among the shortcomings are noted low protection against breaking.
Traditionally, the gate is made of metal. Such designs are practical in use and guaranteed to last a long time.
The process of developing a garage design at first glance seems deceptively easy. In fact, a large number of nuances and features of the room, which must be taken into account, will complicate the task. If everything is done right and find the golden mean between comfort and an aesthetically pleasing view, then the garage will not only be a parking lot, but also a cozy area for work, where it's comfortable for the motorist himself.