Everyone wants to design their house in accordance with taste preferences, so that it was beautiful, cozy, laconic or luxurious, fashionable or authentic. But the arrangement of a private cottage or villa is only half the battle. No matter how beautiful the building looks, it will lose half of its charm if it rises on a vacant lot - an uncomfortable site with a rickety slate fence and inaccurate beds in the background. Disappointing picture, right? Design of land with all the attached buildings and sites are engaged in landscape designers. Although the highly specialized designers have gained wide popularity only in recent years, this profession appeared in ancient times when it became necessary to decorate the temple complexes and the possessions of wealthy citizens. The project of landscape design of the site can be developed independently. Beginners are often lost and do not know which side to approach the task. In the article we will give a number of valuable advice to beginners in landscape design and will show by examples, what potential hides this decorating art.
Working with the drawing is not necessarily on paper. For these purposes, a lot of online assistants have been created. Visualizers after loading the initial data will offer a rich range of "filling" the landscape, among which you just need to choose what you like. After the completion of the main work on the project, the program for the virtual site can walk, evaluate its merits and find weaknesses that are subject to immediate correction.
Those who make only the first timid steps in landscape design and are afraid to make a series of irreparable mistakes, professionals will help. Before the implementation of the idea for a fee, which is incommensurable with the cost of the finished project, designers can conduct a thorough, objective analysis of the work and give valuable advice.
Important characteristics of the site
The most important characteristics of the land, which can greatly affect the design, include:
- Area. This is the first thing that should be oriented. It is obvious that large-scale ideas can not be implemented on a landscape of an area of several hundred. For such projects, scope is necessary.
- The form. Most unlucky owners of asymmetric sites. Optimal areas are considered square and rectangular. Properly arrange triangular ownership is already more difficult. How many hectares in a particular area, you can find out from the documents of purchase and sale.
- Relief. In this case, the elevations, the hollows, the slopes are important. The nature of the relief will have a greater impact on gardening.
- The presence of neighboring sites, nearby roads. This nuance will have to be taken into account when placing various objects for which certain remote standards are set.
- Availability of utilities. Similar occurs in those areas that are located in densely populated suburbs. If it is a question of "wild" nature, then all communications have to be built from scratch and designing this nuance facilitates the same as the wallet of the summer resident, because such work will be associated with additional spending.
Also take into account the presence of natural objects: reservoirs, rocky heights, trees.
We design according to the rules and regulations
First of all, it is necessary to familiarize yourself with the standards for observing distances between buildings of different types. If any rule is neglected, after checking by the fire or sanitary inspection staff will not only have to pay a fine, but also demolish the building and start construction work anew. The list of standards is as follows:
- Between buildings of non-combustible materials (concrete, reinforced concrete) and similar structures, a distance of at least 6 m should be maintained. If the shed or summer kitchen is equipped with wooden ceilings, then they are erected at a distance of 8 m. For buildings made of combustible materials (wood), observe a distance of 10 m m.
- 10 m are left between similar buildings of non-combustible materials having wooden floors. Before the buildings of wood observe a distance of 12 m.
- Complete buildings of combustible materials and frame floors are erected at a distance of 15 m from each other.
- Residential house from the street must be separated at least 5 m.
- Water sources (wells, wells) are not excavated in the vicinity of compost pits and street toilets. The minimum distance between them should be 8 m. A similar distance is observed between the shower and the house or the cellar where the provisions are stored.
- 12 pm must separate the housing from the buildings containing livestock, and from the restroom.
It is necessary to take into account the permissible distances to the site of neighbors from different objects. Tall trees and farm buildings in which animals are kept must be separated from the fence 4 m. The house can be built a little closer - only 3 m., And the other buildings at a distance of 1 m. The medium-sized trees are planted at a distance of 2 m from the neighboring fence, and the bushes - at 1 m. Most such regulations are established to large objects They did not cast a shadow and did not prevent other people from breaking a garden or a garden. Although the construction of a lavatory, a shed for pigs or excavating a compost pit next to neighbors is fraught with a violation of sanitary standards, which can lead to contamination of water in their area. Do not expect that they drilled a well from another fence.
Selecting a color palette for landscape design
With the help of color scheme, you can create a unique design in the most primitive summer residence. And there will be no need for special financial investments to form a composite palette of paints. To make a gamut of colors of individual objects was easier, they are grouped into the following categories:
- Natural elements of the landscape. This group includes everything that was created by nature: ponds, elevations, green spaces and even natural rock gardens.
- Architectural elements. They include all the buildings on the site: from arbours and to the main house. In this case, the color of decoration materials and ornaments is important.
- Details of the decorative and social landscape. This category includes man-made elements, the combination of shades of which is unlimited. The group includes trees, bushes, beds, flower beds (planted with their own hands), rock gardens, rockeries, artificial ponds, fountains and springs.
- Other design elements. These include garden paths, fences, decking, bridges, lights, small sculpture, hammocks.
The latter category is equated with a small decoration, if we draw a parallel with the interior design. With its help, the color composition is finally ground, and if necessary, easily replace components with others. In fact, "other elements" express the mood of the site owner while the selection of other parts is based on the tastes, which, as is known, change only with time.
Popular stylistic directions
All stylistic directions for the design of household plots and suburban areas can be conditionally classified into two groups:
- Modern popular.
If the former were formed over many years and reached us in the form in which they were embodied in different epochs, then the second group is in constant motion, develops and changes. Historical styles include Dutch, Japanese, Mediterranean, French, English, Moorish, Colonial, Russian and Chinese. The popular group includes high-tech, minimalism, alpine (landscape analogue of the chalet), modern and eco direction. In the latter case, the plot is drawn up as naturally as possible, that is, natural asymmetry is welcomed. Minimalism uses dwarf trees, large spaces and a harmonious arrangement of rare decorative elements. HiTech obeys strict rules: neat asphalt paths, simple geometry in the arrangement of small architectural forms, perfectly cut shrubs. Modern is based on the use of smooth lines, rounded corners, the use of modern materials and contrasting combinations of colors and textures. Alpine style is ideal for decorating relief areas. They are divided into "mountain" gardens, where vegetation alternates with stone grooves and rock gardens.Read also: Landscaping of a country house - examples of design
Zoning of the site
To landscape composition looked neat, without piling up individual elements, it must be zoned, that is, divided into separate functional areas, on which certain objects are grouped. The average area includes the following zones:
- Rest area.
- Garden and vegetable landscapes.
- Group of outbuildings.
- A playground for outdoor activities and games.
All zones are isolated from each other with the help of garden paths, fences, flower beds or decorative elements.
Rest zone рассчитана на большие компании и может включать в себя:
- Arbor open or closed type. The first option is used only in the summer. Closed gazebos are glazed and sometimes can have an autonomous heating system, which makes them a comfortable place for winter holidays.
- Open or closed (under the awning) playground with barbecue, hearth or barbecue.
- A furnished back yard with upholstered furniture, a dining table, a chaise longue and poufs. This area is decorated in the open air or decorated with a pergola, twined with ivy, grapes, clematis.
- Dining room without a canopy. In the zone there is a dining table and chairs. Most often it is located near the summer kitchen, so you do not have to far to eat plates with dishes.
Rest zone обычно размещается рядом с садом, что обеспечивает красивый пейзажный вид, и с детской площадкой, чтобы за малышами можно было присматривать не отвлекаясь от посиделок.
Garden and garden area
The garden and the garden are traditionally united in one zone, although variants are possible when beds are broken in one half of a plot, and trees and bushes are planted in another. The choice of a place for green plantations determines the relief, the depth of groundwater and the type of soil. Experts recommend that you have beds in the "deaf" side of the plot, behind the house, so that the greenhouse farming does not callurize the eyes and does not spoil the exterior of the house. If the soil for cultivation of cucumbers and tomatoes is not suitable, the situation can be changed with the help of imported soil. The garden in any case should look neat and well-groomed. In achieving this effect will help, the so-called "high" beds, raised above the rest of the ground and fenced with wooden, plastic, stone fences. The garden can take a variety of forms. Sometimes it is a paradise with exotic flora, as if descended from photos of fashion magazines, and in other cases it is an imitation of a park with fruit and coniferous trees planted in rows, with benches for rest and neat paths.
Area with outbuildings
By economic buildings include a bathhouse, summer kitchen, sheds for inventory, dowers, buildings where pets are kept. In fact, in this zone are all the sites where any work is performed, there is no time to rest, so the emphasis is on functionality, and not on beauty. When developing a design project, they pay attention to the color of the finishing materials of buildings, their stylistic conformity to the chosen concept and easy decoration with the help of flower beds, paths and fences.
Sports and play area
A sports and playground may include a tennis court, children's slides and a swing, a system of horizontal bars and even some types of exercise equipment if the household members are addicted to physical exercise in the morning. Its location is impractical in areas with a small area. In these cases it is better to limit yourself to only a compact swing and a slide. The sports and entertainment area is traditionally located on the back yard. It, as a rule, is bordered by a recreation area and a garden.See also: Roses in landscape design: types and variants of decoration
Garden paths and lawn
Garden paths are mainly used for zoning the site. On the sides they are decorated with low fences, curb flower beds, stalls, ribbon flower beds and mixborders, if the path adjoins a blind fence. Tracks are made of pebbles, rubble, large flat stones, wood spills, boards, concrete, bricks, pieces of ceramic tile laid out in a mosaic method. The lawn is planted on site free from buildings, as the grass carpet looks spectacular if it occupies a large area. Such a lawn is located on the outskirts of the recreation area, in summer it can be used as a field for mini-football. In addition to the traditional short-cropped lawn, there is also a Moorish variant. It does not require special care and is a sweet potpourri of field grasses, whose height sometimes reaches the waist.
Artificial reservoirs - an element of landscape design
What is the site without a pond? In rare cases, a trickle flows through the property or there is a small natural pond nearby. If the landscape is deprived of natural water veins, then they will have to create their artificial alternative. The pond is considered the most economical option. Care of him will be minimal. The pond is inhabited by aquatic flora and sometimes by fish. Harmonizes the water structure with minimalism and Japanese style. Pleasant sounds of murmur of water will come from the fountains and their more complex versions - cascades. To arrange such a pond, you will have to purchase a special water pumping system that will consistently "eat" electricity. The more complex the design and the higher its power, the more liquid it can overtake. In the luxurious homesteads are equipped with swimming pools. It is well combined this personal pond for bathing with a bathhouse. It can steam, and then cool in the cool water of the pool.
Rules of lighting the site
District lighting is divided into three categories:
- Basic. This group includes a set of lighting devices near the porch and near the outbuildings.
- Additional. Lanterns along the tracks, which are necessary for free movement on the site at night.
- Decorative. This type of lighting emphasizes the beauty of individual elements of landscape design that do not carry any "useful" function and are installed exclusively for the sake of a pleasant view.
Powerful lamps are installed only in basic lighting devices. Decorative sources are light enough, scattered light.
A cost-effective solution is the purchase of solar-powered lamps. For the whole night of such a source of light, of course, not enough, but 3-5 hours they can work smoothly in the pitch darkness.
Do not forget about the decorative elements
"Cutting" of the landscape of the site is carried out with the help of decorative elements. They do not have a single classification, but conditionally these details can be divided into two large groups:
- "Living" decorations, that is, green plantations.
- Other details.
To "living" decor include flower beds and all kinds of compositions from bushes and trees. These can be flower beds, curbs, solitaires, solo plants, mixborders, wings, topiary, labyrinths, multi-level plantations, rosaries, arabesques, rock gardens, rockeries, pots. The rest of the decorations are benches, small architectural forms, sculptures, ceramic animal figures, bridges, pergolas, platforms, trellises, arches, garden furniture. The choice of decorative elements directly depends on the style of the site. For example, a wooden cart with flowers and old wheels will emphasize the carelessness of rustic or Russian styles. A luxurious metal bench with forging elements will suit modern, English or classical direction. The fountain, drowning in flower beds and decorated with sculptures, will perfectly fit into the framework of the French style.
Proper organization of space on the site is the guarantee of a beautiful landscape. Designing design should be perceived as a challenge, an opportunity to show their talent designer. Do not faint away from the budget of the entire campaign, as many ideas can be implemented independently without involving specialists whose services will be costly. Fortunately, the World Wide Web is full of all sorts of master classes on laying garden paths, creating complex flower gardens and installing gazebos.